Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Ethnic Discrimination, Name Change and Labor Market Inequality: Mixed approaches to ethnic exclusion in Sweden
Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four empirical studies on ethnic integration in the Swedish labor market. Studies I-III draw on a field experiment testing ethnic discrimination in the hiring process.

Study I documents the existence of employer discrimination in response to equally merited applications with Arabic/African or Swedish names, and shows that foreign-named applicants have to send twice as many applications to receive a callback compared to Swedish-named applicants. Results also suggest that employers in female-dense occupations practice ethnic and gender compensation while employers in male-dense occupations practice only gender compensation.

Study II reveals gendered differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on a job application. Results indicate a reverse gender gap, as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced but remain strong and significant for male applicants.

Study III evaluates criticism directed at residual analysis and field experiments that claims that they tell us nothing about real world discrimination and its long-term effects. By combining experimental and register data, Study III responds to this criticism by showing that the results of Study I correspond closely with real world labor market inequality of identical ‘twins’ (identified through propensity score matching) to the fictive individuals of Study I.

Study IV explores the strategies underlying surname change from a Middle Eastern name to a more Swedish sounding one, drawing on 45 interviews with surname changers with a Middle Eastern background. The results indicate that immigrant name change is a pragmatic assimilation strategy. The study also illustrates how the institutional enabling of name change both creates and enables pragmatic assimilation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2012. , 47 p.
Series
Stockholm studies in sociology, ISSN 0491-0885 ; N.S., 54
Keyword [en]
ethnicity, ethnic discrimination, employment gaps, field experiment, correspondence test, gender, sex segregation, name change, stigma, pragmatic assimilation, mixed methods, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-79041ISBN: 978-91-87235-08-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-79041DiVA: diva2:561919
Public defence
2012-11-30, De Geersalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 14, Stockholm, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 1: Submitted. Paper 2: Submitted. Paper 3: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-11-08 Created: 2012-08-24 Last updated: 2015-06-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The multiple burdens of foreign-named men - testing ethnic discrimination in the hiring process
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The multiple burdens of foreign-named men - testing ethnic discrimination in the hiring process
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

For the past couple of decades, scholars have repeatedly documented persistent ethnic inequality in the Swedish labor market. Still, the conception that ethnic discrimination is part of the problem of ethnic inequality remains contested, in academia as well as public debate. Drawing on the results of a field experiment (correspondence test), this paper provides evidence of extensive ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market. Pairs of equally merited applications, one with a Swedish name and one with an Arabic or African name, were sent in response to job openings. Discrimination was measured by documenting the existence of an ethnic difference in call-backs. The experiment showed not only that there was discrimination in all the targeted occupations, but also that there were large differences in discrimination rates between the occupations. The findings also indicate that employers in male occupations practice sex compensation favoring female-named applicants while employers in female occupations practice both ethnic and sex compensation, favoring foreign-named men in particular.

Keyword
Ethnicity, Discrimination, Employment gaps, Field experiments, Gender, Sex segregation, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81485 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes against Men and Women with Arabic Names
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Reverse Gender Gap in Ethnic Discrimination: Employer Stereotypes against Men and Women with Arabic Names
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

We examine differences in the intensity of employer stereotypes against men and women with Arabic names in Sweden by testing how much more work experience is needed to eliminate the disadvantage of having an Arabic name on job applications. Employers are first sent CVs of equal merits in a field-experiment setup. Arabic-named CVs are thereafter enhanced with more relevant work experience than Swedish-named CVs. Results indicate a reverse gender gap in employer stereotypes as initial differences in call-backs disappear for female applicants when CVs for Arabic-named applications are enhanced, but remain strong and significant for male applicants. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed about the interaction of gender and ethnicity, we find that Arabic men face stronger discrimination in the labor market than Arabic women.

Keyword
Employment Gaps, Ethnicity, Gender, Discrimination, Field Experiments
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81486 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved
3. Comparing Fictitious and Real Persons: Explaining the Unexplained Ethnic Labor Market Gap from Register Data - a Replication of a Randomized Field Experiment in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing Fictitious and Real Persons: Explaining the Unexplained Ethnic Labor Market Gap from Register Data - a Replication of a Randomized Field Experiment in Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Residual analyses of register data on labor market outcomes almost always find a substantial unexplained gap between immigrants and natives, or between native groups of different origins, after controlling for human capital variables and other relevant characteristics. This gap is by some scholars interpreted as the result of discrimination. However, the residual approach to discrimination in the labor market has been subject to serious criticism, as the unexplained gap may also be the result of omitted variable bias or measurement errors of the control variables. We shed new light onto this important question by linking register data with field experiment data. With the results from a correspondence test (in which equivalent applications varying only on immigrant background was sent to employers) as the starting point, we use propensity score matching methods to identify real-life ”twins” to the fictive individuals of the correspondence test, i.e., individuals with equivalent characteristics. We thereafter analyze the labor market outcomes of the ”twins” and compare these outcomes with the results of the correspondence test. Since the register data results correspond quite well to those of the correspondence test, we argue that we can with more assurance than before, draw conclusions about discrimination based on results from register data.

Keyword
ethnicity, immigrants, discrimination, gender, employment gaps, field experiments, propensity score matching, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81487 (URN)
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved
4. Name change and destigmatization among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Name change and destigmatization among Middle Eastern immigrants in Sweden
2012 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 35, no 3, 471-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown that individuals in Sweden with foreign-sounding surnames who take on more Swedish-sounding or neutral surnames have a positive earnings progression compared to individuals who keep their foreign-sounding names. This article explores the strategies underlying these surname changes. I draw on forty-five interviews from a population of individuals with Middle Eastern backgrounds who changed surnames during the 1990s. Drawing on stigma and destigmatization theory, I argue that immigrant name change, a strategy typically associated with cultural assimilation, is a destigmatization strategy aiming for pragmatic assimilation. Through passing (as either Swedish or non-Middle Eastern), immigrants may keep the benefits of maintaining ethnic identity in their private life and the benefits of more easy public interactions outside the ethnic group. This study also illustrates how the institutional enabling of name change both creates and enables pragmatic assimilation.

Keyword
Stigma, immigrants, pragmatic assimilation, name change, ethnic discrimination, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-81488 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2011.589522 (DOI)000301861400007 ()
Available from: 2012-10-22 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2012-10-23Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(476 kB)1478 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 476 kBChecksum SHA-512
29885c58031686ccdc7a805ea05a3cb4994b31521a1bdb3c080cfca20ac3f6e029944129a3c30a5e103f61d9a72ac5701775bc26cf1d239fb8b6b60ca23bfd6c
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
epub fulltext(1555 kB)10 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.epubFile size 1555 kBChecksum SHA-512
757332bdae627f1b1e90c0f77ebdc652ef7517b8186e7dacd05045ab5389a6e097dae39b40342b0b4768af51bff93854405713bd7c1d066a23e17960c09ac7b5
Type fulltextMimetype application/epub+zip

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bursell, Moa
By organisation
Department of Sociology
Sociology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 1488 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Total: 2605 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf