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Exposure assessment and modeling of quartz in Swedish iron foundries for a nested case-control study on lung cancer
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Man-Technology-Environment Research Centre (MTM), Department of Science, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna, Sweden.
Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin. Department of Clinical Medicines; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
Vise andre og tillknytning
2012 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN 1545-9624, E-ISSN 1545-9632, Vol. 9, nr 2, 110-119 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure assessment of quartz in Swedish iron foundries was performed based on historical and present measurement data. To evaluate the exposure response relationship between quartz exposure and lung cancer, we modeled quartz exposure from our database of measurements using determinants job title, time period and company. Based on these modeled exposure data, we conducted a nested case– control evaluation.

In our database, the overall individual daily time-weighted average (TWA) quartz concentrations of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m3, averaging 0.083 mg/m3. The job titles with mean TWAs for the whole study period exceeding the European Union recommended occupational exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3 were fettlers (0.087 mg/m3), furnace and ladle repair (0.42 mg/m3) and maintenance (0.054 mg/m3) workers.

The mixed model analysis demonstrated significant determinants on the job level for furnace and ladle repair (β=4.06; 95% CI 2.78-5.93). For all jobs significantly higher exposure levels occurred only during the first time period, 1968-1979 (β=2.08; 95% CI 1.75-2.47), and a decreasing but not significant trend was noted for the three following 10 year time periods up to 2006 (β=1.0, 0.96 and 1, respectively). Two iron foundries had significantly higher quartz concentration levels than the others (β=1.31; 95% CI 1.00-1.71 and β=1.63; 95% CI 1.00-2.65, respectively). The individual cumulative quartz exposure measures were categorized in low, medium and high exposure (0.5-<1, 1-1.9 and ≥2 mg/m3 *years, respectively).

In the nested case-control analysis, we found the highest odds ratios of lung cancer (OR 1.17; 95% CI 0.53-2.55) for the medium exposure group. No dose– response trend or significantly increased risk was determined for our high exposed group (≥2 mg/m3), representing 40 years of exposure at >0.05 mg/m3 of quartz. To conclude, certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, but an increased risk of lung cancer caused by quartz exposure in these Swedish iron foundries could not be confirmed at our exposure levels.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis, 2012. Vol. 9, nr 2, 110-119 s.
Emneord [en]
Exposure modeling, iron foundry, lung cancer, quartz
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Arbets- och miljömedicin
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-21293DOI: 10.1080/15459624.2011.645397ISI: 000300962700009PubMedID: 22239127Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84860878860OAI: oai:DiVA.org:oru-21293DiVA: diva2:482639
Forskningsfinansiär
AFA Insurance
Merknad

Funding Abency:

AFA, Stockholm 

Tilgjengelig fra: 2012-01-24 Laget: 2012-01-24 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Quartz in Swedish iron foundries: exposure and cancer risk
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quartz in Swedish iron foundries: exposure and cancer risk
2012 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to assess the exposure to quartz in Swedish iron foundries and to determine the cancer morbidity for Swedish foundry workers. A cohort of 3,045 foundry workers and a final measurement database of 2,333 number of samples was established.

The exposure measurements showed high levels of respirable quartz, in particular for fettlers and furnace and ladle repair workers with individual 8 hr TWA (GM=0.041 and 0.052 mg/m3; range 0.004-2.1 and 0.0098-0.83 mg/m3). In our database, the quartz concentrations as 8hr TWAs of current and historical data varied between 0.0018 and 4.9 mg/m3, averaging 0.083 mg/m3, with the highest exposures for fettlers (0.087 mg/m3) and furnace and ladle repair workers (0.42 mg/m3). The exposure for workers using respirators assuming full effect when used were assessed quantitatively, revealing workers with actual exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limits.

Overall cancer morbidity was not increased, but the incidence of lung cancer was significantly elevated (SIR 1.61; 95 % CI 1.20-2.12). In the cohort study, significant associations between lung cancer and cumulative quartz exposure were detected for quartz doses of 1-2 mg/m3 * year (SIR 2.88; 95 % CI 1.44-5.16) and >2 mg/m3 * year (SIR 1.68; 95 % CI 1.07- 2.52). These findings were not confirmed in the case-control analysis.

The agreement between the estimated exposure in our early historical model and the development model showed a regression coefficient of 2.42, implying an underestimation of the historical exposure when using the development model data. The corresponding comparison between the development and the validation model based on our survey data showed a B of 0.31, implying an overestimation of present exposures when using data from the validation model.

The main conclusions of the thesis are that certain foundry workers are still exposed to high levels of quartz, and the overall excess lung cancer could not be confirmed in the exposure-response analysis.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Örebro: Örebro universitet, 2012. 78 s.
Serie
Örebro Studies in Environmental Science, ISSN 1650-6278 ; 16
Emneord
Case-control study, crystalline silica, exposure assessment, iron foundry, lung cancer, morbidity, occupational hygiene, respirable quartz
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:oru:diva-20620 (URN)978-91-7668-837-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2012-02-10, Bohmanssonsalen, B-huset, Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, 13:00 (svensk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-12-22 Laget: 2011-12-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-10-17bibliografisk kontrollert

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