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The oxytocin/vasopressin receptor family has at least five members in the gnathostome lineage, inclucing two distinct V2 subtypes
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
2012 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 175, no 1, 135-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The vertebrate oxytocin and vasopressin receptors form a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate a large variety of functions, including social behavior and the regulation of blood pressure, water balance and reproduction. In mammals four family members have been identified, three of which respond to vasopressin (VP) named V1A, V1B and V2, and one of which is activated by oxytocin (OT), called the OT receptor. Four receptors have been identified in chicken as well, but these have received different names. Until recently only V1-type receptors have been described in several species of teleost fishes. We have identified family members in several gnathostome genomes and performed phylogenetic analyses to classify OT/VP-receptors across species and determine orthology relationships. Our phylogenetic tree identifies five distinct ancestral gnathostome receptor subtypes in the OT/VP receptor family: V1A, V1B, V2A, V2B and OT receptors. The existence of distinct V2A and V2B receptors has not been previously recognized. We have found these two subtypes in all examined teleost genomes as well as in available frog and lizard genomes and conclude that the V2A-type is orthologous to mammalian V2 receptors whereas the V2B-type is orthologous to avian V2 receptors. Some teleost fishes have acquired additional and more recent gene duplicates with up to eight receptor family members. Thus, this analysis reveals an unprecedented complexity in the gnathostome repertoire of OT/VP receptors, opening interesting research avenues regarding functions such as regulation of water balance, reproduction and behavior, particularly in reptiles, amphibians, teleost fishes and cartilaginous fishes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2012. Vol. 175, no 1, 135-143 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-166957DOI: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.10.011ISI: 000299065800016PubMedID: 22057000OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-166957DiVA: diva2:479421
Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2013-02-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine and Neuronal Gene Families: Focus on Pituitary and Retina
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of Vertebrate Endocrine and Neuronal Gene Families: Focus on Pituitary and Retina
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The duplication of genes followed by selection is perhaps the most prominent way in which molecular biological systems gain multiplicity, diversity and functional complexity in evolution. Whole genome duplications (WGDs) therefore have the potential of generating an extraordinary amount of evolutionary innovation. It is now accepted that the vertebrate lineage has gone through two rounds of WGD in its early stages, after the divergence of invertebrate chordates and before the emergence of jawed vertebrates. These basal vertebrate WGDs are called 2R for two rounds of whole genome duplication. An additional WGD called 3R occurred early in the evolution of teleost fishes, before the radiation of this species-rich group. This thesis describes the evolution of several endocrine and neuronal gene families in relation to the vertebrate WGDs, through a comparative genomic approach including both phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal location data across a wide range of vertebrate taxa.

These results show that numerous endocrine gene families have expanded in 2R and in several cases also in 3R. These include the gene families of oxytocin and vasopressin receptors (OT/VP-R), somatostatin receptors (SSTR) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP). For the OT/VP-R and SSTR families, previously undescribed subtypes were identified. The protein hormone family that includes growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) acquired a new PRL gene in 2R, however the origins of GH, PRL and SL likely predate 2R. The corresponding family of receptors diversified during different time periods through a combination of local duplications and 3R.

Neuronal gene families of the visual system have also expanded in 2R and 3R. The results presented here demonstrate that the vertebrate repertoire of visual opsin genes arose in 2R as part of chromosomal blocks that also include the OT/VP-R genes. The gene families including the transducin alpha, beta and gamma subunits also arose in 2R, hinting at the importance of these events in the diversification and specialization of phototransduction cascades for rods and cones.

Thus, the whole genome duplications have been important contributors to the evolution of both vision and endocrine regulation in the vertebrates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 55 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 856
Keyword
phylogenetics, evolution, molecular evolution, gene family evolution, genome duplication, gene duplication, oxytocin receptor, vasopressin receptor, visual opsin, transducin, growth hormone, prolactin, somatolactin, growth hormone receptor, prolactin receptor, somatostatin receptor, SSTR, IGFBP, evolution, molekylär evolution, fylogeni
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-191829 (URN)978-91-554-8579-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-03-01, B7:101a, Uppsala Biomedical Centre, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-02-07 Created: 2013-01-14 Last updated: 2013-04-02

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