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Size, Shape, and Elemental Composition of Airborne Wear Particles from Disc Brake Materials
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-0696-7506
KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik.
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2489-0688
2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 15-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and pads experience wear, generating particles that may become airborne. In field tests, it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment, so it is preferable to use laboratory test stands to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated. The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of separate, capture, and analyze airborne wear particles generated by a disc brake in a disc brake assembly test stand. This test stand used allows the cleanliness of the air surrounding the test specimens to be controlled and thus the airborne portion of the wear particles to be studied separately. One pair each of low-metallic (LM) and non-asbestos organic (NAO) brake pads was tested against grey cast iron rotors. Before testing, the elemental contents of the brake materials were analyzed using glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). The concentration and size of airborne wear particles were measured online during testing. In addition, airborne wear particles were collected on filters during the tests and afterward analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The analyzed wear particles contained elements such as iron, titanium, zinc, barium, manganese, and copper. Both the low-metallic and non-asbestos organic type of brake pads tested display a bimodal size distribution with peaks at 280 and 350 nm. Most of the airborne particles generated have a diameter smaller than 2.5 mu m.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2010. Vol. 38, nr 1, s. 15-24
Emneord [en]
Wear, Airborne particles, Disc brake, SEM, EDX, GDOES, particulate air-pollution, antimony sources, emission factors, european, cities, abrasion dusts, mortality, pm10, distributions, counters, tailpipe
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19304DOI: 10.1007/s11249-009-9564-xISI: 000275463200002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77952672272OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-19304DiVA, id: diva2:337351
Merknad
QC 20110114Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-08-05 Laget: 2010-08-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
2011 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the disc and pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed,some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found anassociation between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere,so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by discbrakes.

This thesis deals with experimental and computational methods focusing on airborne wearparticles from disc brakes. The eight appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure andnumerically determine the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles thatoriginate from the pad-to-disc contact. The objective is to increase the scientific knowledge ofairborne wear particles generated from disc brakes.

Papers A, B and C describe tests of disc brake materials conducted in a modified pin-on-discmachine. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure and rank disc brakematerials with respect to the concentration of airborne particles generated. Ultrafine (nanosized),fine and coarse airborne wear particles that contain metals such as iron, copper and tin werefound.

Papers D and E describe a novel disc brake assembly test stand and tests of disc brake materialsconducted in it. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure the concentrationand size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The resultsalso indicate an ability to rank different pad/disc combinations with respect to the concentrationof airborne wear particles. Furthermore, the results suggest that this test stand can be used tostudy rust layer removal from the disc and that airborne particles are generated even at low brakepressures, such as used to remove dirt from the disc.

Paper F compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in adisc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between thethree different test methods is found.

Paper G presents and discusses a simulation methodology that numerically determines theconcentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad-to-disccontact in disc brakes by using general-purpose finite element software.

Paper H discusses a cellular automaton model that describes the microscopic contact situationbetween the pad and disc in disc brakes. This model is used to numerically determine the amountof wear that leaves the contact. The results correlate qualitatively with experimental observationsfound in the literature.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. s. 20
Serie
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:04
Emneord
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Nanoparticles, Cellular automaton
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31152 (URN)978-91-7415-871-7 (ISBN)
Disputas
2011-05-27, F3 (Flodissalen), Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20110317Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-03-17 Laget: 2011-03-10 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-24bibliografisk kontrollert

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