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Airborne wear particles from passenger car disc brakes: a comparison of measurements from field tests, a disc brake assembly test stand, and a pin-on-disc machine
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinkonstruktion (Avd.).ORCID-id: 0000-0003-0696-7506
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Maskinelement.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-4461-0209
KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2489-0688
Vise andre og tillknytning
2010 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, nr J2, s. 179-188Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Most modern passenger cars have disc brakes on the front wheels.Unlike drumbrakes,disc brakes are not sealed off from the ambient air. During braking, both the rotor and the padswear, and this wear process generates particles that may become airborne. In field tests it isdifficult to distinguish these particles from others in the environment. It is thus preferable toconduct tests using laboratory test stands where the cleanness of the surrounding air can becontrolled.However, the validity of results fromthese test stands should be verifiedbycomparisonwith field tests. This article presents a comparison of the number and volume distributions ofairborne wear particles as measured online in field tests, in a disc brake assembly test stand,and in a pin-on-disc machine. In all cases, grey cast iron rotors and low metallic pads weretested. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is shown. The numberandvolume-weighted mean particle diameter for all test methods is about 0.4 and 2–3μm,respectively.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
England: Professional Engineering Publishing , 2010. Vol. 224, nr J2, s. 179-188
Emneord [en]
wear, airborne particles, disc brake, test stand, field test
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11041DOI: 10.1243/13506501JET633ISI: 000275650100006Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77249128420OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-11041DiVA, id: diva2:234825
Merknad

QC 20100827

Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-10 Laget: 2009-09-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-01-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Towards a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes
2009 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the rotor and the pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes. However, in field tests it is difficult to distinguish these particles from others in the surrounding environment, so it may be preferable to use laboratory test stands and/or simulation models to study the amount of airborne wear particles generated.

This thesis deals with a simulation methodology for prediction of airborne wear particles from disc brakes and three experimental methods for testing disc brake materials with focus on airborne wear particles. The four appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure and predict the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles that originate from the pad to rotor contact. The objective is to develop a simulation methodology that predicts the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles from disc brakes.

Paper A describes how a modified pin-on-disc machine was used to study airborne wear particles originating from different disc brake materials. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure and rank the number concentration and size distribution of the airborne wear particles generated.

Paper B describes a disc brake assembly test stand for measurements of airborne wear particles from disc brakes. The results indicate that the test setup can be used to measure the number concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The results also indicate a promising ability to rank different pad/rotor material combinations with respect to the number concentration of airborne wear particles.

Paper C compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in a disc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between the three different test methods is found.

Paper D presents a simulation methodology for predicting the number and size distribution of airborne wear particles using finite element analysis (FEA). The simulated number distribution is compared with experimental measurements at component level. The result indicates that the proposed methodology may be used to predict the number concentration and size distribution of airborne particles generated in the pad-to-rotor contact.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. s. 17
Serie
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2009:15
Emneord
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Particle coefficient, Friction
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11044 (URN)978-91-7415-391-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
B242, Brinellvägen 83, Maskin (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-18 Laget: 2009-09-10 Sist oppdatert: 2010-11-04bibliografisk kontrollert
2. A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A study of airborne wear particles from automotive disc brakes
2011 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

During braking, both the disc and pads in disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed,some of the wear particles generated can become airborne. Several studies have found anassociation between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere,so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by discbrakes.

This thesis deals with experimental and computational methods focusing on airborne wearparticles from disc brakes. The eight appended papers discuss the possibility to both measure andnumerically determine the concentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles thatoriginate from the pad-to-disc contact. The objective is to increase the scientific knowledge ofairborne wear particles generated from disc brakes.

Papers A, B and C describe tests of disc brake materials conducted in a modified pin-on-discmachine. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure and rank disc brakematerials with respect to the concentration of airborne particles generated. Ultrafine (nanosized),fine and coarse airborne wear particles that contain metals such as iron, copper and tin werefound.

Papers D and E describe a novel disc brake assembly test stand and tests of disc brake materialsconducted in it. The results show that the test set-up can be used to measure the concentrationand size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from disc brake materials. The resultsalso indicate an ability to rank different pad/disc combinations with respect to the concentrationof airborne wear particles. Furthermore, the results suggest that this test stand can be used tostudy rust layer removal from the disc and that airborne particles are generated even at low brakepressures, such as used to remove dirt from the disc.

Paper F compares measurements made in passenger car field tests with measurements made in adisc brake assembly test stand and in a pin-on-disc machine. A promising correlation between thethree different test methods is found.

Paper G presents and discusses a simulation methodology that numerically determines theconcentration and size distribution of airborne wear particles generated from the pad-to-disccontact in disc brakes by using general-purpose finite element software.

Paper H discusses a cellular automaton model that describes the microscopic contact situationbetween the pad and disc in disc brakes. This model is used to numerically determine the amountof wear that leaves the contact. The results correlate qualitatively with experimental observationsfound in the literature.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. s. 20
Serie
Trita-MMK, ISSN 1400-1179 ; 2011:04
Emneord
Disc brakes, Airborne wear particles, Nanoparticles, Cellular automaton
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-31152 (URN)978-91-7415-871-7 (ISBN)
Disputas
2011-05-27, F3 (Flodissalen), Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20110317Tilgjengelig fra: 2011-03-17 Laget: 2011-03-10 Sist oppdatert: 2011-05-24bibliografisk kontrollert

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