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Writing in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: A bimodal bilingual perspective on their written products and writing processes
Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1364-7933
2023 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents unique insights into the written products and writing processes of Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children using a keystroke logging tool. Writing processes encompass the activities (such as planning or revision) that writers engage in during the production of the written text. The thesis explores how the diverse backgrounds of these children, including age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree, and sign language proficiency, may influence their narrative texts. The study includes 58 children and adolescents aged 8–18, with varying degrees of hearing loss and linguistic backgrounds in spoken and written Swedish and Swedish Sign Language.

This research comprises four studies that collectively demonstrate that DHH children using hearing technology produce written products closely resembling those of children of deaf adults (CODA) and hearing children. The only notable exceptions are in terms of lexical density and text length, both of which may be associated with their reduced auditory input. The finding of few other differences is unique from an international perspective and may be attributed to the effectiveness of early interventions in the Swedish context which, for instance, include sign language courses for parents, bilingual schools, early hearing screening, and early cochlear implant operations. Regarding the writing process, DHH children exhibit a “here-and-now” planning strategy similar to same-age hearing peers. However, the DHH group shows distinctive patterns in writing fluency, with a more deliberate pace and a tendency to revise work more frequently. This writing behavior may be attributed to slower lexical retrieval and phonological challenges from their specific auditory backgrounds. Extensive local revisions and repeated spelling attempts, visible in the writing processes in the DHH group, may explain the minor differences between the DHH and the hearing groups in their written products.

When considering background factors, age plays a crucial role. DHH children follow a developmental trajectory similar to their hearing peers, albeit with slight delays, suggesting continuous development. Gender differences are observed, with girls demonstrating higher proficiency in writing. The age of acquisition does not predict writing outcomes, likely due to early linguistic input and support. Hearing loss predicts a higher cognitive load for DHH children in writing. The connection between spoken language and writing is less direct, which may explain why they need more time, effort and strategies to write. DHH children proficient in both sign and spoken languages seem to perform as well as or even better than their non-signing peers in writing tasks, producing more clauses and adjectives. The latter can be interpreted as a transfer from sign languages’ inherently descriptive nature. This also indicates that sign language proficiency, along with spoken language, does not hinder written language development. 

In summary, this thesis provides a comprehensive understanding of DHH children’s written products and writing processes, highlighting the multifaceted effects of age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree and sign language proficiency. The thesis offers insights into the writing behavior and the strategies they employ and contributes to areas such as writing and bilingualism. Finally, the results may be of interest to parents, educators, and researchers seeking a deeper understanding of the writing of the DHH group.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2023. , s. 108
Nyckelord [en]
DHH, CODA, cochlear implants, hearing aids, sign language, bilingualism, literacy, writing development, keystroke logging, writing fluency, revision, linguistic complexity, lexical density, lexical diversity, spelling, cross-linguistic influence, transfer
Nationell ämneskategori
Jämförande språkvetenskap och allmän lingvistik
Forskningsämne
lingvistik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224014ISBN: 978-91-8014-595-4 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-8014-596-1 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-224014DiVA, id: diva2:1815032
Disputation
2024-01-12, sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-20 Skapad: 2023-11-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Spelling in Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing Children With Sign Language Knowledge
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spelling in Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing Children With Sign Language Knowledge
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 2463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

What do spelling errors look like in children with sign language knowledge but with variation in hearing background, and what strategies do these children rely on when they learn how to spell in written language? Earlier research suggests that the spelling of children with hearing loss is different, because of their lack of hearing, which requires them to rely on other strategies. In this study, we examine whether, and how, different variables such as hearing degree, sign language knowledge and bilingualism may affect the spelling strategies of children with Swedish sign language, Svenskt teckenspråk, (STS) knowledge, and whether these variables can be mirrored in these children’s spelling. The spelling process of nineteen children with STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9) with different hearing degrees, born into deaf families, is described and compared with a group of fourteen hearing children without STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9). Keystroke logging was used to investigate the participants’ writing process. The spelling behavior of the children was further analyzed and categorized into different spelling error categories. The results indicate that many children showed exceptionally few spelling errors compared to earlier studies, that may derive from their early exposure of STS, enabling them to use the fingerspelling strategy. All of the children also demonstrated similar typing skills. The deaf children showed a tendency to rely on a visual strategy during spelling, which may result in incorrect, but visually similar, words, i.e., a type of spelling errors not found in texts by hearing children with STS knowledge. The deaf children also showed direct transfer from STS in their spelling. It was found that hard-of-hearing children together with hearing children of deaf adults (CODAs), both with STS knowledge, used a sounding strategy, rather than a visual strategy. Overall, this study suggests that the ability to hear and to use sign language, together and respectively, play a significant role for the spelling patterns and spelling strategies used by the children with and without hearing loss.

Nyckelord
spelling, sign language, deaf, hard of hearing, CODA, writing processes, keystroke logging, spelling strategies, stavning, teckenspråk, döva, hörselskadade, CODA, skrivprocesser, keystroke logging, stavningsstrategier
Nationell ämneskategori
Jämförande språkvetenskap och allmän lingvistik
Forskningsämne
svenska som andraspråk för döva
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175975 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02463 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-12 Skapad: 2019-11-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-27Bibliografiskt granskad
2. The Writing Process and the Written Product in Bimodal Bilingual Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Writing Process and the Written Product in Bimodal Bilingual Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Languages, E-ISSN 2226-471X, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

How does bimodal bilingualism-a signed and a spoken language-influence the writing process or the written product? The writing outcomes of twenty deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children and hearing children of deaf adults (CODA) (mean 11.6 years) with similar bimodal bilingual backgrounds were analyzed. During the writing of a narrative text, a keylogging tool was used that generated detailed information about the participants' writing process and written product. Unlike earlier studies that have repeatedly shown that monolingual hearing children outperform their DHH peers in writing, there were few differences between the groups that likely were caused by their various hearing backgrounds, such as in their lexical density. Signing knowledge was negatively correlated with writing flow and pauses before words, and positively correlated with deleted characters, but these did not affect the written product negatively. Instead, they used different processes to reach similar texts. This study emphasizes the importance of including and comparing participants with similar language experience backgrounds. It may be deceptive to compare bilingual DHH children with hearing children with other language backgrounds, risking showing language differences. This should always be controlled for through including true control groups with similar language experience as the examined groups.

Nyckelord
deaf and hard of hearing, DHH, CODA, bimodal bilingualism, bilingualism, sign language, written product, writing process, keystroke logging, literacy
Nationell ämneskategori
Språk och litteratur
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-199577 (URN)10.3390/languages6020085 (DOI)000720445500001 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2021-12-13 Skapad: 2021-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-27Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Writing Development in DHH Students: A Bimodal Bilingual Approach
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Writing Development in DHH Students: A Bimodal Bilingual Approach
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 211-225Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes the lexical and syntactic development of written narratives in 24 deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students aged between 8 and 18 and takes into account how their varying linguistic backgrounds may predict their written performance. All participants use spoken Swedish, but the study also considers their proficiency in Swedish Sign language, which ranged from zero to fluent. Their narrative texts were analyzed in regard to syntax and lexicon, which demonstrated a strong developmental trend in which increased age predicted more complex texts. Age of acquisition did not predict any writing outcome, which is suggested to occur because all participants were exposed to language early, that is, within the critical time window for language acquisition. Sign language proficiency showed a tendency to predict adjective density and number of clauses, which encourages future research in this area, especially since this connection argues for the benefits of early access to a language and the positive relationship between sign language proficiency and writing.

Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap Språk och litteratur
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-213912 (URN)10.1093/deafed/enac045 (DOI)000898387100001 ()36964761 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85151044983 (Scopus ID)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-02-06 Skapad: 2023-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-27Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Written products and writing processes in Swedish deaf and hard of hearing children: an explorative study on the impact of linguistic background
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Written products and writing processes in Swedish deaf and hard of hearing children: an explorative study on the impact of linguistic background
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1112263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The small body of research on writing and writing processes in the group of deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children has shown that this group struggles more with writing than their hearing peers. This article aims to explore in what ways the DHH group differs from their peers regarding the written product and the writing processes. Participants are all in the age span 10-12 years old and include: (a) 12 DHH children with knowledge of Swedish sign language (Svenskt teckensprak, STS) as well as spoken Swedish, (b) 10 age-matched hearing children of deaf adults (CODA) who know STS, (c) 14 age-matched hearing peers with no STS knowledge. More specifically we investigate how text length and lexical properties relate to writing processes such as planning (measured through pauses) and revision, and how the background factors of age, gender, hearing and knowledge of STS predict the outcome in product and process. The data consists of picture-elicited narratives collected with keystroke logging. The overall results show that age is a strong predictor for writing fluency, longer texts and more sophisticated lexicon for all the children. This confirms theories on writing development which stress that when children have automatized basic low-level processes such as transcription and spelling, this will free up cognitive space for engaging in high-level processes, such as planning and revision-which in turn will result in more mature texts. What characterizes the DHH group is slower writing fluency, higher lexical density, due to omitted function words, and extensive revisions (both deletions and insertions) on word level and below. One explanation for the last finding is that limitations in the auditory input lead to more uncertainty regarding correct and appropriate lexical choices, as well as spelling. The article contributes with more specific knowledge on what is challenging during writing for DHH children with knowledge of STS and spoken Swedish in middle school, in the developmental stage when basic writing skills are established.

Nyckelord
DHH, CODA, cochlear implant, sign language, keystroke logging, revision, lexical density, writing fluency
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-218665 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1112263 (DOI)000992486300001 ()37228344 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-21 Skapad: 2023-06-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-27Bibliografiskt granskad

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