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Analytical tools and information-sharing methods supporting road safety organizations
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, GIS - Geografiska informationssystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
2008 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

A prerequisite for improving road safety are reliable and consistent sources of information about traffic and accidents, which will help assess the prevailing situation and give a good indication of their severity. In many countries there is under-reporting of road accidents, deaths and injuries, no collection of data at all, or low quality of information. Potential knowledge is hidden, due to the large accumulation of traffic and accident data. This limits the investigative tasks of road safety experts and thus decreases the utilization of databases. All these factors can have serious effects on the analysis of the road safety situation, as well as on the results of the analyses.

This dissertation presents a three-tiered conceptual model to support the sharing of road safety–related information and a set of applications and analysis tools. The overall aim of the research is to build and maintain an information-sharing platform, and to construct mechanisms that can support road safety professionals and researchers in their efforts to prevent road accidents. GLOBESAFE is a platform for information sharing among road safety organizations in different countries developed during this research.

Several approaches were used, First, requirement elicitation methods were used to identify the exact requirements of the platform. This helped in developing a conceptual model, a common vocabulary, a set of applications, and various access modes to the system. The implementation of the requirements was based on iterative prototyping. Usability methods were introduced to evaluate the users’ interaction satisfaction with the system and the various tools. Second, a system-thinking approach and a technology acceptance model were used in the study of the Swedish traffic data acquisition system. Finally, visual data mining methods were introduced as a novel approach to discovering hidden knowledge and relationships in road traffic and accident databases. The results from these studies have been reported in several scientific articles.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: LiU-Tryck , 2008. , 118 s.
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1187
Nyckelord [en]
Visual data mining, STRADA, GLOBESAFE, Conceptual model, System thinking, Internet GIS
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11596ISBN: 978-91-7393-887-7 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-11596DiVA: diva2:18005
Disputation
2008-06-12, Alan Turing, Hus E, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-04-21Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Ontological Approach to Modeling Information Systems
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ontological Approach to Modeling Information Systems
2004 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computer and information Technology (Cit'04), 14–16 September, Wuhan, China: IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, 2004, 1122-1127 s.Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of formal tools in information system modeling and development represents a potential area of research in computer science. In 1967, the term ontology appeared for the first time in computer science literature as S. H. Mealy introduced it as a basic foundation in data modeling. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the concept of ontology (from a philosophical perspective) as it was used to bridge the gap between philosophy and information systems science, and to investigate ontology types that can be found during ontological investigation and the methods used in the investigation process. The secondary objective of this paper is to study different design and engineering approaches of ontology as well as development environments that are used to create and edit ontologies.

Nyckelord
Ontology, Conceptual Model
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13184 (URN)10.1109/CIT.2004.1357345 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-04-21
2. Benchmarking Road Safety Situations Using OGC Model of Portrayal Workflow
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Benchmarking Road Safety Situations Using OGC Model of Portrayal Workflow
2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Geoinformatics (GeoInformatics’5), 17-19 August, Toronto, Canada: Ryerson University, 2005Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nyckelord
road safety, benchmarking, OGC model
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13185 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-04-21
3. Map as Interface for Shared Information: A Study of Design Principles and User Interaction Satisfaction
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Map as Interface for Shared Information: A Study of Design Principles and User Interaction Satisfaction
2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet 2006: Murcia, Spain, 2006, 377-384 s.Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Nyckelord
Maps, shared information, design priciples, user satisfaction
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13186 (URN)972-8924-19-4 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-02-05Bibliografiskt granskad
4. GLOBESAFE: A Platform for Information-Sharing Among Road Safety Organizations
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>GLOBESAFE: A Platform for Information-Sharing Among Road Safety Organizations
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: IFIP-W.G. 9th International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries: May 2007, São Paulo, Brazil, 2007, 1-10 s.Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Nyckelord
information sharing, road safety
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13187 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-04-23Bibliografiskt granskad
5. A Systemic View on Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition System
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Systemic View on Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition System
2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Road Safety on Four Continents (RS4C), 14-16 November, Bangkok, Thailand, Sweden: VTI , 2007, 1-12 s.Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents work in progress to study information sharing among road safety organizations. The focus is to study accident data acquisition system. In 2002, Swedish Road Transport authority (SRT) has accepted STRADA as accident reporting system to be used by the police all over Sweden. Such system is vital for coordinating, maintaining and auditing road safety in the country. Normally road accidents are reported by the police or by Emergency unit at the hospital. However more than 50% of the hospitals in Sweden didn’t use the system which decrease the utilization of the system and reduce the quality of the information that demanded. By using system thinking approach in this study we try to see why such situation is occurred and how changes can be introduced and handle to overcome such problem. Interviews conducted with focus group and different users of the system. To investigate the issues related to the acceptance of the system we use Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). We recommend getting the user involved in the life cycle of the STRADA and also the developers could use enabling system to overcome problems in related to system usability and complexity. Also we suggest the use of iterative development to govern the life cycle.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sweden: VTI, 2007
Nyckelord
STRADA Information sharing Road accidents recording system
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13188 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-04-23Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Knowledge Discovery in Road Accidents Database Integration of Visual and Automatic Data Mining Methods
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Knowledge Discovery in Road Accidents Database Integration of Visual and Automatic Data Mining Methods
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 1, 59-85 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Road accident statistics are collected and used by a large number of users and this can result in a huge volume of data which requires to be explored in order to ascertain the hidden knowledge. Potential knowledge may be hidden because of the accumulation of data, which limits the exploration task for the road safety expert and, hence, reduces the utilization of the database. In order to assist in solving these problems, this paper explores Automatic and Visual Data Mining (VDM) methods. The main purpose is to study VDM methods and their applicability to knowledge discovery in a road accident databases. The basic feature of VDM is to involve the user in the exploration process. VDM uses direct interactive methods to allow the user to obtain an insight into and recognize different patterns in the dataset. In this paper, I apply a range of methods and techniques, including a paradigm for VDM, exploratory data analysis, and clustering methods, such as K-means algorithms, hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC), classification trees, and self-organized-maps (SOM). These methods assist in integrating VDM with automatic data mining algorithms. Open source VDM tools offering visualization techniques were used. The first contribution of this paper lies in the area of discovering clusters and different relationships (such as the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and fatalities, traffic risk and population, personal risk and car per capita, etc.) in the road safety database. The methods used were very useful and valuable for detecting clusters of countries that share similar traffic situations. The second contribution was the exploratory data analysis where the user can explore the contents and the structure of the data set at an early stage of the analysis. This is supported by the filtering components of VDM. This assists expert users with a strong background in traffic safety analysis to be able to intimate assumptions and hypotheses concerning future situations. The third contribution involved interactive explorations based on brushing and linking methods; this novel approach assists both the experienced and inexperienced users to detect and recognize interesting patterns in the available database. The results obtained showed that this approach offers a better understanding of the contents of road safety databases, with respect to current statistical techniques and approaches used for analyzing road safety situations.

Nyckelord
Visual data mining, K-Means, HAC, SOM, InfoVis, IRTAD, GLOBESAFE
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13189 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2008-04-28 Skapad: 2008-04-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-01-26

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