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Using confocal fusion for measurement of metal AM surface texture
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7501-8318
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3656-1806
Halmstad University, Sweden.
2020 (English)In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 024003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The highly complex nature of as printed metal AM surfaces pose other challenges for making measurements compared to surfaces made with many conventional processing methods. The high complexity is caused by high aspect ratios, a mix of high and low reflexivity, steep angles etc. It is not clear which method is the most suitable for measuring these surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare four different measurement modes available in one instrument to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the respective techniques regarding measurements of metal AM surfaces. The evaluated measurement modes are Confocal Microscopy, Coherence Scanning Interferometry, Focus Variation and Confocal Fusion. The effect of advantages and drawbacks of studied techniques was tested on typical surfaces produced by L-PBF process. Surfaces printed at 0° and 90° inclinations were compared regarding the measurement results achieved from the different methods. The Power Spectral Density analysis and visual comparison were used for the examination of studied measurements methods. Besides the comparison of areal measurements acquired by different modes available in the instrument also extracted profile measurements were compared with profile images acquired using an Optical Microscope. This study reveals that confocal fusion is a promising technique for AM surface characterisation, due to the highest amount of valid data points in the typical measurement. The new approach developed in the study showed that PSD analysis can be used for evaluation of fill in algorithms incorporated in different software. Results of the profile comparisons help to illustrate features that can be depicted by surface measurements, applying different measurement principles, as well as enables comparison of raw profile data between different types of measurements. Further investigation of measurements on AM surfaces in the frequency domain will bring more understanding about the limitations of measurement techniques. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing Ltd , 2020. Vol. 8, no 2, article id 024003
Keywords [en]
additive manufacturing, coherence scanning microscopy, confocal fusion, confocal microscopy, powder bed fusion, power spectral density, surface topography, Aspect ratio, Frequency domain analysis, Spectral density, Surface measurement, Textures, Areal measurement, Coherence scanning interferometries, Conventional processing, Frequency domains, Measurement techniques, Power spectral density analysis, Profile measurement, Surface characterisation, Interferometry
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-45098DOI: 10.1088/2051-672X/ab84c3Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85085270863OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-45098DiVA, id: diva2:1443580
Available from: 2020-06-18 Created: 2020-06-18 Last updated: 2023-05-22Bibliographically approved

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