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Global patterns of avian influenza A (H7): virus evolution and zoonotic threats
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Anim Hlth Res Inst, Natl Lab Vet Qual Control Poultry Prod, 7 Nadi El Seid St, Giza 12618, Egypt.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6876-8903
Linnaeus Univ, Ctr Ecol & Evolut Microbial Model Syst, 44008 Hus Vita, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.
Justus Liebig Univ Giessen, Inst Med Virol, Schubertstr 81, D-35392 Giessen, Germany;NRC, Ctr Sci Excellence Influenza Viruses, 33 El Buhouth St, Giza 12622, Egypt.
WHO Collaborating Ctr Reference & Res Influenza, Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, 792 Elizabeth St, Melbourne, Vic 3000, Australia.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5629-0196
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2019 (English)In: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, ISSN 0168-6445, E-ISSN 1574-6976, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 608-621Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to impose a negative impact on animal and human health worldwide. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic AIV H5 and, more recently, the emergence of low pathogenic AIV H7N9 have led to enormous socioeconomical losses in the poultry industry and resulted in fatal human infections. While H5N1 remains infamous, the number of zoonotic infections with H7N9 has far surpassed those attributed to H5. Despite the clear public health concerns posed by AIV H7, it is unclear why specifically this virus subtype became endemic in poultry and emerged in humans. In this review, we bring together data on global patterns of H7 circulation, evolution and emergence in humans. Specifically, we discuss data from the wild bird reservoir, expansion and epidemiology in poultry, significant increase in their zoonotic potential since 2013 and genesis of highly pathogenic H7. In addition, we analysed available sequence data from an evolutionary perspective, demonstrating patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions and reassortment dynamics. The integration of all aspects is crucial in the optimisation of surveillance efforts in wild birds, poultry and humans, and we emphasise the need for a One Health approach in controlling emerging viruses such as AIV H7.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 43, no 6, p. 608-621
Keywords [en]
avian influenza, influenza A virus, H7, One Health, virus evolution, zoonosis
National Category
Microbiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-407487DOI: 10.1093/femsre/fuz019ISI: 000514895500003PubMedID: 31381759OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-407487DiVA, id: diva2:1416808
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-03877Swedish Research Council, 2016-02596Swedish Research Council, 2018-02569Available from: 2020-03-25 Created: 2020-03-25 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved

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Naguib, MahmoudWille, MichelleJärhult, Josef D.Ellström, PatrikLundkvist, ÅkeOlsen, Björn
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