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The old and the new: evaluating performance of acoustic telemetry systems in tracking migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) around hydropower facilities
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Arcum)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8814-0013
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1618-2617
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2020 (English)In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 177-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Acoustic telemetry represents the state-of-the-art technology for monitoring behaviour of aquatic organisms in the wild. Yet, the performance of different systems is rarely evaluated across species and environments. In this study, we evaluate two different acoustic telemetry systems, a commonly used analogue pulse-position-modulation-based system (VEMCO PPM) and a newly developed high-residency digital binary phase shift key-based system (VEMCO HR2), in ability to track downstream migrating Atlantic salmon smolt (Salmo salar) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla) around hydropower facilities. High-precision GPS were used to evaluate precision and accuracy of hyperbolically positioned data derived from each system. The PPM-based system had higher detection range than HR2 and generated more positions per transmission for eels migrating close to bottom than for surface-oriented salmon smolts. HR2 generated tenfold more positions per time unit than PPM, were less sensitive to noise, achieved submetre positional precision, and were considerably more accurate than PPM-derived positions after filtering. HR2 was deemed more capable than PPM in fine-scale positioning at moderate distances at hydropower facilities.

Abstract [fr]

La télémétrie acoustique représente la fine pointe de la technologie pour la surveillance des comportements d’organismes aquatiques dans la nature. La performance des différents systèmes de télémétrie est toutefois rarement évaluée pour différentes espèces et différents milieux. Nous évaluons deux systèmes de télémétrie acoustique, soit un système analogue basé sur la modulation de la localisation des impulsions (VEMCO PPM) couramment utilisé et un système numérique mis au point récemment à long temps de résidence basé sur la modulation binaire à déplacement de phase (VEMCO HR2), afin d’établir leur capacité de suivre des saumoneaux de saumon atlantique (Salmo salar) et des anguilles européennes (Anguilla anguilla)en dévalaison près d’installations hydroélectriques. Le GPS de haute précision est utilisé pour évaluer la précision et l’exactitude de données de localisation hyperbolique obtenues de chacun des systèmes. Le système PPM a une meilleure portée de détection que le système HR2 et produit plus de localisations par transmission pour les anguilles migrant près du fond que pour les saumoneaux qui demeurent plus près de la surface. Le système HR2 produit dix fois plus d’emplacements par unité de temps que le système PPM, est moins sensible au bruit, atteint une précision submétrique de la localisation et donne des emplacements considérablement plus exacts que le système PPM après filtrage. Les capacités du système HR2 sont jugées plus grandes que celles du système PPM pour la localisation à échelle fine à des distances modérées d’installations hydroélectriques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Canadian Science Publishing , 2020. Vol. 77, no 1, p. 177-187
National Category
Fish and Aquacultural Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-167611DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2019-0058ISI: 000506851600015Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85077895040OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-167611DiVA, id: diva2:1395845
Available from: 2020-02-24 Created: 2020-02-24 Last updated: 2023-03-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Downstream migration of salmonids in regulated rivers: Non-conventional methods for fish diversion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Downstream migration of salmonids in regulated rivers: Non-conventional methods for fish diversion
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Passages through hydropower plants can be fatal for downstream migrating salmonids (Salmo spp.). This is particularly true for large adults that are returning to the ocean after spawning. Physicalstructures such as racks can be used to guide fish towards fishways that sidestep high-mortality passages through turbines, but these structures are often too logistically challenging and economically burdensome to deploy at large scales. If functional, non-physical guidance structures, such as bubble barriers, could prove important for salmonid populations in regulated rivers, as they represent a low cost alternative that could also be deployed in larger rivers. This thesis aims to: i) quantify the diverting effect of bubble barriers on downstream migrating salmonids; and ii) disentangle the different sensory cues and behavioral traits that give rise to this potential diversion effect. My experiments showed a strong repelling effect of bubble barriers on downstream migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in multiple contexts, ranging from laboratory flumes to 50-100 m long barriers deployed in a regulated river. My field experiments showed that bubble barriers can successfully guide both juveniles (smolts) and adults (kelts) of Atlantic salmon and sea run brown trout (Salmo trutta) at discharges exceeding 500 m3 s-1. The relative fish guidance efficiency ranged from 28% to 86%,and was negative correlated with water velocity. Based on laboratory flume experiments, adding stroboscopic lights reduced the guiding efficiency of the barrier, and interestingly, the repelling effect disappeared entirely when evaluated in darkness. These findings strongly suggest that visual cues are crucial for the repelling effect of bubble barriers. I subsequently hypothesized that the visual appearance of bubbles barriers might be perceived as an area associated with risk for fish, suggesting that more bold and active individuals could be more likely to pass through. However, I found no correlation between the probability of being successfully diverted by a bubble barrier and various proxies for bold behavior or swimming activity. To the contrary, I found that less active salmon parr were more likely to pass through bubbles than the more active smolt. I conclude that bubble barriers can be used to divert downstream migrating salmonids towards safe fishways in regulated rivers. While the guiding efficiency might be lower than for fine sized racks, bubble barriers remain functional at larger scales and across a range of water velocities relevant for most regulated rivers. Hence, bubble barriers represent a largely maintenance free, and low-cost alternative to conventional physical structures, and show great promise as a future management tool to facilitate successful fish migration in regulated river systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2021. p. 21
Keywords
Fish migration, Fish passage, Fish guidance, Hydropower, Atlantic salmon, Brown trout, Bubble barrier, Non-physical barrier
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-186822 (URN)978-91-7855-584-0 (ISBN)978-91-7855-585-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-09-17, Lilla Hörsalen, KBC-huset, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-08-27 Created: 2021-08-24 Last updated: 2021-08-25Bibliographically approved

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