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Micromachined Waveguide Interposer for the Characterization of Multi-port Sub-THz Devices
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8894-7930
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3339-9137
2020 (English)In: Journal of Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, ISSN 1866-6892, E-ISSN 1866-6906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports for the first time on a micromachined interposer platform for characterizing highly miniaturized multi-port sub-THz waveguide components. The reduced size of such devices does often not allow to connect them to conventional waveguide flanges. We demonstrate the micromachined interposer concept by characterizing a miniaturized, three-port, 220–330-GHz turnstile orthomode transducer. The interposer contains low-loss micromachined waveguides for routing the ports of the device under test to standard waveguide flanges and integrated micromachined matched loads for terminating the unused ports. In addition to the interposer, the measurement setup consists of a micromachined square-to-rectangular waveguide transition. These two devices enable the characterization of such a complex microwave component in four different configurations with a standard two-port measurement setup. In addition, the design of the interposer allows for independent characterization of its sub-components and, thus, for accurate de-embedding from the measured data, as demonstrated in this paper. The measurement setup can be custom-designed for each silicon micromachined device under test and co-fabricated in the same wafer due to the batch nature of this process. The solution presented here avoids the need of CNC-milled test-fixtures or waveguide pieces that deteriorate the performance of the device under test and reduce the measurement accuracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2020.
Keywords [en]
Waveguide, Silicon micromachining, Terahertz, Multi-port, Measurement, Interposer, Test-fixture, DRIE, Orthomode transducer
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266451DOI: 10.1007/s10762-019-00663-4ISI: 000513450100002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85078630059OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-266451DiVA, id: diva2:1384798
Note

QC 20200113

Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-05-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Submillimeter-Wave Waveguide Frontends by Silicon-on-Insulator Micromachining
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Submillimeter-Wave Waveguide Frontends by Silicon-on-Insulator Micromachining
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents novel radiofrequency (RF) frontend components in the submillimeter-wave (sub-mmW) range implemented by silicon micromachining, or deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). DRIE is rapidly becoming a driving technology for the fabrication of waveguide components and systems when approaching the terahertz (THz) frequency range. The conventional method to manufacture microwave waveguide components, CNC-milling, shows important limitations when used at sub-mmW frequencies or above, due to the reduced size of the waveguides. At the same time, the classic electromagnetic designs, oriented to CNC-milling, are often not suitable for their fabrication using alternative technologies. The work in this thesis aims to develop fabrication-oriented electromagnetic structures, making use of the full flexibility of silicon on insulator (SOI) micromachining, and enabling the implementation of complex RF frontends at a low fabrication complexity.

The first part of the thesis reports on a turnstile orthomode transducer (OMT) in the WM-864 band (220 – 330 GHz). OMTs are key components in the feed-chain for radio astronomy, communications, or radiometry applications. However, their complex geometry has often limited their use when approaching the THz range, where polarization diversity is commonly avoided, or optical systems are preferred.

The second part reports on a high-gain and broadband waveguide corporatefed array antenna in the WM-570 band (330 – 500 GHz). High gain and broadband antennas are required for the future generation of THz wireless communications. Reflector and lens antennas can meet these specifications, but their fabrication for the THz range requires precision machining, resultingin a high cost, low yield, and small scale production. The use of silicon micromachined antenna arrays overcomes these issues while providing a more compact frontend.

In the third part of the thesis, a parallel plate waveguide (PPW) leaky wave antenna (LWA) fed by a quasi-optical beamforming network (BFN) in the WM-864 band is presented. The antenna frontend generates a pencil shaped beam scanning in elevation. The compact design, large bandwidth, and beam steering capabilities make this antenna a suitable frontend for THz radar applications.

The final part of this thesis reports on a novel waveguide single pole double throw (SPDT) switch in the WM-570 band. The switch is demonstrated in a two-port network configuration with two switching states (ON/LOAD), used for receiver calibration, or for avoiding backward waves in transmitter switching. A more complex 1×4 switching matrix is also designed for the implementation of an active radar antenna operating at 340 GHz.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar nya radio frekvens (RF) frontend komponenter inom submillimeter våg (sub-mmW) bandet som kan implementeras med mikrofabrikationsteknik i kisel samt djup reaktiv jonetsning (DRIE). DRIE är en snabbt växande teknik som har blivit drivande för fabrikation av vågledarkomponenter och system som angränsar terrahertz (THz) frekvensbandet. Den konventionella tillverkningsmetoden för vågledarkomponenter, CNC-fräsning, påvisar stora begränsningar vid användning för sub-mmW bandet eller högre, på grund av de små dimentionerna av vågledarkomponenterna. Samtidigt är de klassiska elektomagnetiska konstruktionerna, som ofta är orienterade mot CNC-fräsning, inte lämpade för alternativa tillverkningsmetoder. Syftet med denna avhandling är att utveckla tillverknings orienterade strukturer genom att använda flexibiliteten av silicon on insulator (SOI) mikrofabrikationsteknik och att möjliggöra implementeringen av komplexa RF frontend med en låg tillverkningskomplexitet.

Den första delen av avhandlingen redogör för turnstile orthomode omvandlare (OMT) i WM-864 bandet (220 - 330 GHz). OMT är nyckelkomponenter i feedchain till radioastronomi, kommunikation och radiometritillämpningar. Likväl, har deras komplexa geometri ofta begränsat deras användning när THz bandet angränsas, där polariserings diversitet typiskt undviks, eller optiska systems är att föredra.

Den andra delen redogör för högvinst-, och bredbands,- parallellmatad arrayantenn i WM-570 vågledarteknologi (330 - 500 GHz). Högvinst- och bredbandsantenner behövs för den kommande generationens trådlösa THz kommunikation. Reflektor- och linsantenner kan uppfylla dessa specifikationer men deras tillverkning i THz bandet kräver mycket precis skärande bearbetning, vilket resulterar i höga kostnader, låg avkastning, och småskalig tillverkning. Genom användning av kisel mikrofabrikationstillverkade arrayantenner är det möjligt att övekomma sådana problem och samtidigt tillhandahålla en mer kompakt frontend.

I den tredje delen av denna avhandling presenteras en parallelplats-vågledar- (PPW) läckande-våg-antenn (LWA) matad av kvasi-optiska strålformande nätverk (BFN) i WM-864 bandet. Denna antenn-frontend genererar en pennformad strålskanning i elevations riktningen. Den kompakta utformningen, stora bandbredden, och strålstyrningsmöjligheterna gör denna antenn väl anpassad för THz radar tillämpningar.

Den sista delen i avhandlingen beskriver en ny vågledar-, single pole double throw (SPDT)-, omkopplare i WM-570 bandet. Omkopplaren påvisas i en tvåports- nätverkskonfiguration med två växlar (ON/LOAD) som används för mottagarkalibrering, eller för att undvika bakåtgående vågor i sändarväxlingen. En mer komplex 1 x 4 växlingsmatris utformas även för implementeringen av en aktiv antenn för en radar som opererar i 340 GHz.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2020. p. 131
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2020:28
Keywords
antenna, orthomode transducer, switch, waveguide, radiofrequency, beamforming network, submillimeter-wave, terahertz, silicon micromachining, deep reactive ion etching, silicon on insulator
National Category
Telecommunications
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273332 (URN)978-91-7873-528-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-06-12, https://kth-se.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_CnNPt8geTBq7R54VGrXBVA, Stockholm, 16:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20200515

Available from: 2020-05-15 Created: 2020-05-13 Last updated: 2020-06-02Bibliographically approved

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