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Spelling in Deaf, Hard of Hearing and Hearing Children With Sign Language Knowledge
Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1364-7933
Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8579-0771
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 2463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

What do spelling errors look like in children with sign language knowledge but with variation in hearing background, and what strategies do these children rely on when they learn how to spell in written language? Earlier research suggests that the spelling of children with hearing loss is different, because of their lack of hearing, which requires them to rely on other strategies. In this study, we examine whether, and how, different variables such as hearing degree, sign language knowledge and bilingualism may affect the spelling strategies of children with Swedish sign language, Svenskt teckenspråk, (STS) knowledge, and whether these variables can be mirrored in these children’s spelling. The spelling process of nineteen children with STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9) with different hearing degrees, born into deaf families, is described and compared with a group of fourteen hearing children without STS knowledge (mean age: 10.9). Keystroke logging was used to investigate the participants’ writing process. The spelling behavior of the children was further analyzed and categorized into different spelling error categories. The results indicate that many children showed exceptionally few spelling errors compared to earlier studies, that may derive from their early exposure of STS, enabling them to use the fingerspelling strategy. All of the children also demonstrated similar typing skills. The deaf children showed a tendency to rely on a visual strategy during spelling, which may result in incorrect, but visually similar, words, i.e., a type of spelling errors not found in texts by hearing children with STS knowledge. The deaf children also showed direct transfer from STS in their spelling. It was found that hard-of-hearing children together with hearing children of deaf adults (CODAs), both with STS knowledge, used a sounding strategy, rather than a visual strategy. Overall, this study suggests that the ability to hear and to use sign language, together and respectively, play a significant role for the spelling patterns and spelling strategies used by the children with and without hearing loss.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2019. Vol. 10, artikel-id 2463
Nyckelord [en]
spelling, sign language, deaf, hard of hearing, CODA, writing processes, keystroke logging, spelling strategies
Nyckelord [sv]
stavning, teckenspråk, döva, hörselskadade, CODA, skrivprocesser, keystroke logging, stavningsstrategier
Nationell ämneskategori
Jämförande språkvetenskap och allmän lingvistik
Forskningsämne
svenska som andraspråk för döva
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-175975DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02463OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-175975DiVA, id: diva2:1369543
Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-12 Skapad: 2019-11-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-11-27Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Writing in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: A bimodal bilingual perspective on their written products and writing processes
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Writing in deaf and hard-of-hearing children: A bimodal bilingual perspective on their written products and writing processes
2023 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents unique insights into the written products and writing processes of Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children using a keystroke logging tool. Writing processes encompass the activities (such as planning or revision) that writers engage in during the production of the written text. The thesis explores how the diverse backgrounds of these children, including age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree, and sign language proficiency, may influence their narrative texts. The study includes 58 children and adolescents aged 8–18, with varying degrees of hearing loss and linguistic backgrounds in spoken and written Swedish and Swedish Sign Language.

This research comprises four studies that collectively demonstrate that DHH children using hearing technology produce written products closely resembling those of children of deaf adults (CODA) and hearing children. The only notable exceptions are in terms of lexical density and text length, both of which may be associated with their reduced auditory input. The finding of few other differences is unique from an international perspective and may be attributed to the effectiveness of early interventions in the Swedish context which, for instance, include sign language courses for parents, bilingual schools, early hearing screening, and early cochlear implant operations. Regarding the writing process, DHH children exhibit a “here-and-now” planning strategy similar to same-age hearing peers. However, the DHH group shows distinctive patterns in writing fluency, with a more deliberate pace and a tendency to revise work more frequently. This writing behavior may be attributed to slower lexical retrieval and phonological challenges from their specific auditory backgrounds. Extensive local revisions and repeated spelling attempts, visible in the writing processes in the DHH group, may explain the minor differences between the DHH and the hearing groups in their written products.

When considering background factors, age plays a crucial role. DHH children follow a developmental trajectory similar to their hearing peers, albeit with slight delays, suggesting continuous development. Gender differences are observed, with girls demonstrating higher proficiency in writing. The age of acquisition does not predict writing outcomes, likely due to early linguistic input and support. Hearing loss predicts a higher cognitive load for DHH children in writing. The connection between spoken language and writing is less direct, which may explain why they need more time, effort and strategies to write. DHH children proficient in both sign and spoken languages seem to perform as well as or even better than their non-signing peers in writing tasks, producing more clauses and adjectives. The latter can be interpreted as a transfer from sign languages’ inherently descriptive nature. This also indicates that sign language proficiency, along with spoken language, does not hinder written language development. 

In summary, this thesis provides a comprehensive understanding of DHH children’s written products and writing processes, highlighting the multifaceted effects of age, gender, age of acquisition, hearing degree and sign language proficiency. The thesis offers insights into the writing behavior and the strategies they employ and contributes to areas such as writing and bilingualism. Finally, the results may be of interest to parents, educators, and researchers seeking a deeper understanding of the writing of the DHH group.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, 2023. s. 108
Nyckelord
DHH, CODA, cochlear implants, hearing aids, sign language, bilingualism, literacy, writing development, keystroke logging, writing fluency, revision, linguistic complexity, lexical density, lexical diversity, spelling, cross-linguistic influence, transfer
Nationell ämneskategori
Jämförande språkvetenskap och allmän lingvistik
Forskningsämne
lingvistik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:su:diva-224014 (URN)978-91-8014-595-4 (ISBN)978-91-8014-596-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2024-01-12, sal G, Arrheniuslaboratorierna, Svante Arrhenius väg 20 C, Stockholm, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2023-12-20 Skapad: 2023-11-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad

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