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Cooperation and Resource Allocation in Wireless Networking towards the IoT
Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) should be able to react with minimal human intervention and contribute to the Artificial Intelligence (AI) era requiring real-time and scalable operation under heterogeneous network infrastructures. This thesis investigates how cooperation and allocation of resources can contribute to the evolution of future wireless networks supporting the IoT.

First, we examine how to allocate resources to IoT services which run on devices equipped with multiple network interfaces. The resources are heterogeneous and not interchangeable, and their allocation to a service can be split among different interfaces. We formulate an optimization model for this allocation problem, prove its complexity, and derive two heuristic algorithms to approximate the solution in large instances of the problem.

The concept of virtualization is promising towards addressing the heterogeneity of IoT resources by providing an abstraction layer between software and hardware. Network function virtualization (NFV) decouples traditional network operations such a routing from proprietary hardware platforms and implements them as software entities known as virtualized network functions (VNFs). In the second paper, we study how VNF demands can be allocated to Virtual Machines (VMs) by considering the completion-time tolerance of the VNFs. We prove that the problem is NP-complete and devise a subgradient optimization algorithm to provide near-optimal solutions. Our numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm compared to two benchmark algorithms.

Furthermore, we explore the potential of using intermediate nodes, the so-called relays, in IoT networks. In the third paper, we study a multi-user random-access network with a relay node assisting users in transmitting their packets to a destination node. We provide analytical expressions for the performance of the relay's queue and the system throughput. We optimize the relay’s operation parameters to maximize the network-wide throughput while maintaining the relay's queue stability. A stable queue at relay guarantees finite delay for the packets. Furthermore, we study the effect of the wireless links' signal-to-interference-plusnoise ratio (SINR) threshold and the self-interference (SI) cancellation on the per-user and network-wide throughput.

Additionally, caching at the network edge has recently emerged as an encouraging solution to offload cellular traffic and improve several performance metrics of the network such as throughput, delay and energy efficiency. In the fourth paper, we study a wireless network that serves two types of traffic: cacheable and non-cacheable traffic. In the considered system, a wireless user with cache storage requests cacheable content from a data center connected with a wireless base station. The user can be assisted by a pair of wireless helpers that exchange non-cacheable content as well. We devise the system throughput and the delay experienced by the user and provide numerical results that demonstrate how they are affected by the non-cacheable packet arrivals, the availability of caching helpers, the parameters of the caches, and the request rate of the user.

Finally, in the last paper, we consider a time-slotted wireless system that serves both cacheable and non-cacheable traffic with the assistance of a relay node. The latter has storage capabilities to serve both types of traffic. We investigate how allocating the storage capacity to cacheable and non-cacheable traffic affects the system throughput. Our numerical results provide useful insights into the system throughput e.g., that it is not necessarily beneficial to increase the storage capacity for the non-cacheable traffic to realize better throughput at the non-cacheable destination node.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. , p. 42
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2016
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161732DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-161732ISBN: 9789175190044 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-161732DiVA, id: diva2:1368742
Public defence
2019-12-03, K3, Kåkenhus, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Allocation of Heterogeneous Resources of an IoT Device to Flexible Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allocation of Heterogeneous Resources of an IoT Device to Flexible Services
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2016 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices can be equipped with multiple heterogeneous network interfaces. An overwhelmingly large amount of services may demand some or all of these interfaces available resources. Herein, we present a precise mathematical formulation of assigning services to interfaces with heterogeneous resources in one or more rounds. For reasonable instance sizes, the presented formulation produces optimal solutions for this computationally hard problem. We prove the NP-completeness of the problem and develop two algorithms to approximate the optimal solution for big instance sizes. The first algorithm allocates the most demanding service requirements first, considering the average cost of interfaces resources. The second one calculates the demanding resource shares and allocates the most demanding of them first by choosing randomly among equally demanding shares. Finally, we provide simulation results giving insight into services splitting over different interfaces for both cases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keywords
Internet of Things (IoT); mixed integer linear programming; network interfaces; optimization; resource management; scheduling algorithms
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135000 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2016.2535163 (DOI)000393047800006 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Excellence Center at Linkoping-Lund in Information Technology; European Union [324515, 612316, 609094]

Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
2. Virtual Network Functions Scheduling under Delay-Weighted Pricing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Network Functions Scheduling under Delay-Weighted Pricing
2019 (English)In: IEEE Networking Letters, E-ISSN 2576-3156, p. 1-1Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We consider a cost minimization problem for High Volume Servers (HVS) equipped with Virtual Machines (VMs) to serve Virtual Network Functions (VNF) demands for resources. Given a scheduling period, a central scheduler decides which VM to use for each VNF demand. Each VM can be activated or disabled with different costs. Each VNF has a delay-weighted pricing function to indicate its completion time tolerance. We prove the NP-completeness of the problem and develop an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation and subgradient optimization to deal with this computational complexity. Finally, our numerical results demonstrate our algorithm’s effectiveness compared to two benchmarks.

Keywords
Optimization, Linear programming, Resource management, Pricing, Network function virtualization, Complexity theory, Servers
National Category
Computer Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161731 (URN)10.1109/LNET.2019.2937237 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
3. Probabilistic Cooperation of a Full-Duplex Relay in Random Access Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probabilistic Cooperation of a Full-Duplex Relay in Random Access Networks
2017 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, p. 7394-7404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we analyze the probabilistic cooperation of a full-duplex relay in a multiuser random-access network. The relay is equipped with on/off modes for the receiver and the transmitter independently. These modes are modeled as probabilities by which the receiver and the transmitter are activated. We provide analytical expressions for the performance of the relay queue, such as arrival and service rates, stability conditions, and the average queue size. We optimize the relays operation setup to maximize the network-wide throughput while, simultaneously, we keep the relays queue stable and lower the relays receptions and transmissions. Furthermore, we study the effect of the SINR threshold and the self-interference coefficient on the per-user and network-wide throughput. For low SINR threshold, we show under which circumstances it is beneficial to switch off the relay completely, or switch off the relays receiver only.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2017
Keywords
Cooperative communication; relays; relay networks; multiaccess communication; multiple access interference; internet of things (IoT); internet; wireless sensor networks (WSNs); body sensor networks (BSNs)
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139423 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2016.2642540 (DOI)000403140800053 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union [609094, 612361]

Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2019-11-08

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