CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A Needs-Based Approach towards Fostering Long-term Engagement with Energy Feedback among Local Residents
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. (UrbanT)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7572-9678
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to reach the current climate goals, energy consumption needs to decrease in all sectors, including households, which produce 20% of the European emissions. However, it is difficult to increase residents’ engagement in their household electricity consumption as it is an ‘invisible’ form of energy, the monetary incentives are often too small and environmental incentives are not very effective. Building on the idea that an engagement mechanism should be based on user needs, and recent research showing that social influence can be an effective way to affect consumption behaviour, this thesis examines the potential of a neighbourhood-based digital local social network providing feedback on household electricity consumption as an engagement solution. By helping neighbours to know each other better, such a network could meet the basic human need of belonging to a group, while also taking advantage of the social influence between neighbours to increase the effectiveness of the energy feedback provided.

This thesis sought to: 1) Identify needs of residents that could be served by a local social network and explore whether such a network could provide a beneficial context for energy feedback; 2) identify and evaluate a set of design principles for energy feedback and use them to propose a prototype feedback design suitable for use in a local social network; and 3) design and implement a baseline study for measuring changes in aspects of social and environmental sustainability in a neighbourhood that introduction of a local social network can achieve, such as social cohesion, trust, safety, and energy attitudes and behaviour.

In order to achieve these objectives, the Research Through Design methodology was used. This resulted in mixed methods research using quantitative (household survey) and qualitative (focus group interviews, stakeholder consultation workshop) methods. The research was conducted in two eco-districts in Stockholm, Sweden: Hammarby Sjöstad and Stockholm Royal Seaport.

Regarding the first objective, results from the household survey indicated a need for increased interaction between neighbours in Stockholm Royal Seaport, while the focus group discussions revealed local communication needs that a local social network could meet. However, the possibility to use social influence between neighbours in increasing the intention to save energy was shown to be rather weak, possibly because of the current low level of connection between neighbours. Regarding the second objective, a set of design principles was identified using a literature study. They were used to create a design prototype of energy feedback that was presented to potential end-users in a stakeholder consultation workshop and then refined using suggestions given in the workshop. The workshop indicated support for many of the design principles as they were indirectly mentioned in the discussions. The design principle of fair feedback was further explored, suggesting use of typical household consumption as part of a fair comparison metric and when setting reduction goals.

Regarding the third objective, an evaluation method with baseline survey and follow-up surveys was suggested. The household survey served as a baseline for measuring social and environmental sustainability aspects in a neighbourhood. Further research is needed on the effectiveness of a local social network as an engagement mechanism for energy feedback.

Abstract [sv]

För att nå de nuvarande klimatmålen måste energiförbrukningen minska i alla sektorer, även för hushåll som står för 20% av de europeiska utsläppen. Det är dock svårt att öka medborgarnas engagemang kring förbrukningen av hushållsel då el är en "osynlig" energiform, de monetära incitamenten ofta är ofta för små och miljöincitament inte är särskilt effektiva. Baserat på idén att en engagemangsmekanism bör baseras på användarbehov samt ny forskning som visat att socialt inflytande kan vara ett effektivt sätt att påverka konsumtionsbeteendet, undersöker denna avhandling potentialen i ett grannskapsbaserat digitalt lokalt socialt nätverk som tillhandahåller feedback på hushållens elförbrukning som en engagemangslösning. Genom att hjälpa grannar att lära känna varandra bättre kan ett sådant nätverk uppfylla det grundläggande mänskliga behovet av att tillhöra en grupp, samtidigt som det sociala inflytandet mellan grannar kan utnyttjas för att öka effektiviteten hos den tillhandahållna energiåterkopplingen.

Denna avhandling hade tre mål: 1) Identifiera behov hos boende som kan tillgodoses av ett lokalt socialt nätverk samt undersöka huruvida ett sådant nätverk skulle kunna tillhandahålla en bra kontext för energiåterkoppling, 2) identifiera och utvärdera en uppsättning designprinciper för energiåterkoppling, och använda principerna för att föreslå en prototypdesign för energiåterkoppling lämplig för användning i ett lokalt socialt nätverk och 3) utforma och genomföraen baseline-studie för att mäta förändringar i aspekter av social och miljömässig hållbarhet i ett grannskap skulle kunna främjas av införandet av ett lokalt socialt nätverk, exempelvis social sammanhållning, tillit, säkerhet samt energiattityder och beteende.

För att uppnå dessa mål användes Research Through Design-metodiken, vilket i sin tur resulterade i en s.k. “mixed methods”-forskningsmetodik där både kvantitativa (hushållsundersökning) och kvalitativa (fokusgruppintervjuer, workshop) metoder användes. Forskningen genomfördes i två distrikt med miljöprofil i Stockholm: Hammarby Sjöstad och Norra Djurgårdsstaden.

Beträffande det första målet indikerade hushållsundersökningen ett behov av ett ökat samspel mellan grannarna i Norra Djurgårdsstaden. Fokusgruppdiskussionerna avslöjade lokala kommunikationsbehov som ett lokalt socialt nätverk skulle kunna möta. Möjligheten att använda socialt viiinflytande mellan grannar för att öka intentionen att spara energi visade sig dock vara ganska liten, möjligen på grund av den nuvarande låga nivån av sammanhållning mellan grannarna. Beträffande det andra målet identifierades en uppsättning designprinciper med hjälp av en litteraturstudie. Dessa användes för att skapa en designprototyp på energiåterkoppling som presenterades till potentiella slutanvändare under en workshop. Prototypen förbättrades sedan med hjälp av de förslag som gavs i workshopen. Workshopen gav också stöd åt många av designprinciperna som indirekt nämndes under diskussionerna. Designprincipen för rättvis återkoppling undersöktes ytterligare vilket ledde till ett förslag om att använda typisk hushållskonsumtion som en del av en rättvis jämförelseindikator och vid fastställning av energisparmål.

Beträffande det tredje målet föreslogs en utvärderingsmetod baserat på en baseline-studie och uppföljande studier. Hushållsundersökningen fungerade som en utgångspunkt för mätning av sociala och miljömässiga hållbarhetsaspekter i ett grannskap. Ytterligare forskning föreslogs för att visa på effektiviteten hos ett lokalt socialt nätverk som en engagemangsmekanism för energiåterkoppling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 55
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1923
Keywords [en]
Energy feedback, Consumer engagement, Energy behaviour, Social networks, Smart grids, Design principles
Keywords [sv]
Energiåterkoppling, konsumentengagemang, Energibeteende, Sociala nätverk, Smarta elnät, Designprinciper
National Category
Energy Systems Applied Psychology Social Psychology Information Systems, Social aspects Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254920ISBN: 978-91-7873-247-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-254920DiVA, id: diva2:1336100
Presentation
2019-09-17, Q24, Malvinas väg 6B, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190710

Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-07-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Exploring the viability of a local social network for creating persistently engaging energy feedback and improved human well-being
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the viability of a local social network for creating persistently engaging energy feedback and improved human well-being
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, ISSN 0959-6526, no 224, p. 789-801Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long-term engagement of residents is crucial for demand response management, and thus grid stability in energy systems, but current approaches often fail to maintain or even achieve the necessary changes in consumer behaviour. Thus future customer engagement approaches will have to relate more strongly to customer needs in order to achieve long-term engagement. This study presents an approach based on a central need identified in psychological research, namely the need to belong to a group. A mixed methods approach was used to examine how an energy feedback approach that connects to this need could be designed. First, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Identity Theory, a survey was conducted to examine the influence of e.g. norms held by the local social group of neighbours on energy behaviour. In contrast to previous studies on the influence of social groups on sustainable behaviour, no significant influence was found. However, other findings indicated that this was due to the low level of group identity, leading to the assumption that the need for social belonging was not fulfilled in the survey group. Second, focus group discussions were conducted to test this assumption in more detail. Findings from the focus groups confirm the assumption and reveal detailed insights on residential needs for stronger connections between neighbours. We conclude that a local social network could be a suitable solution to the need for local social belonging and, while also providing a context for energy feedback. Thus, implementing a local social network could lead to both persistently engaging energy feedback and also improve human well-being.

Keywords
Energy feedback; Consumer engagement; Energy behaviour; Social networks; Smart grids
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
SRA - Energy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250459 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.127 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063958185 (Scopus ID)
Projects
InteGrid
Note

QC 20190823

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-08-23Bibliographically approved
2. Stockholm Royal Seaport moving towards the goals—Potential and limitations of dynamic and high resolution evaluation data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stockholm Royal Seaport moving towards the goals—Potential and limitations of dynamic and high resolution evaluation data
2018 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 169, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cites have been identified as one key arena to meet future sustainability challenges. However, if cites are to be part of the transition it must become possible to confirm results of ongoing actions. By the introduction information and communication technologies, it has become easier to collect performance parameters from the built environment, thereby enable more detailed evaluation. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the potential and limitation of using dynamic and high resolution meter data for evaluation of energy consumption in buildings and households. The novelty of this approach is that dynamic and high resolution meter data can increase the level of detail in evaluation results and ease detection of deviations in the structures performance. However, most benefits are found from the occupant perspective, as more detailed evaluation information enable better inclusion of this stakeholder group. Furthermore this study has shown that the commonly used indicator energy use per heated floor area is an insufficient communication tool when taking holistic approach to building energy evaluation. Limitation to full use of dynamic and high resolution meter data have been identified to data collection and management, preservation of personal integrity and incentives to react on the given evaluation information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Building evaluation, Dynamic evaluation, High resolution meter data, Stockholm Royal Seaport
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-227540 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.03.078 (DOI)000434005700035 ()2-s2.0-85045403250 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180509

Available from: 2018-05-09 Created: 2018-05-09 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
3. Designing energy feedback for a local social network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing energy feedback for a local social network
2019 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 199, p. 88-101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Engaged households are needed for the future ‘smart grids’ to function, but it is difficult to engage residents in their household electricity consumption. Building on earlier research suggesting that a local social network could provide a suitable context for energy feedback, this paper examines how feedback presented in a social network should be designed in order to be better understood by the residents and encourage long-term engagement. A review of the literature on design principles and cases where they had been implemented identified 24 principles. A prototype feedback design adapted for a local social network was made, based on design principles deemed suitable for the screens designed. End-user feedback on the prototype was collected through a stakeholder consultation workshop. In the workshop dis- cussions, 17 identified principles were mentioned and there was support for 15 of these, one was both supported and contested and two were contested. Based on comments and suggestions from end-users, a revised version of the feedback prototype was made for implementation in a pilot study in Sweden and Portugal.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Environmental Sciences Information Systems, Social aspects Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Industrial Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254918 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.06.038 (DOI)000482245700008 ()2-s2.0-85068174524 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2015–00305EU, Horizon 2020, 731218
Note

QC 20190917

Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

Mäkivierikko 2019 - A Needs-Based Approach towards Fostering Long-term Engagement with Energy Feedback among Local Residents(1923 kB)33 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1923 kBChecksum SHA-512
612b4d74c2f9afcbe2473333963776a33d3571bd899161efa7db59381803b5f31712a33ed646866a7ac9f8b7bbc064a7b7ca9d44fb89254d7588f752b71d0ef3
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Mäkivierikko, Aram
By organisation
Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering
Energy SystemsApplied PsychologySocial PsychologyInformation Systems, Social aspectsHuman Computer Interaction

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 33 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 311 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf