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Urban Form and Mobility - Analysis and Information to Catalyse Sustainable Development
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1790-0254
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Urban transportation today consumes scarce resources of fossil fuels and it is a major cause for environmental damage and accelerating climate change. To achieve sustainable mobility in the cities, it is necessary to improve energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through the promotion of walking, cycling and especially public transportation.

The urban form and the embeddedness of automobility is a challenging obstacle on the way towards sustainable mobility and cities. Many neighbourhoods and cities, particularly in developed countries like Sweden, were specifically designed and developed to accommodate the private car, individual mobility and freedom of movement. It is impossible to walk or cycle and the public transportation is not competitive. The lack of mobility choices in these neighbourhoods and cities hinders the possibilities to shift towards more sustainable travel alternatives. Urban designers and planners can help with redesigning these neighbourhoods and creating urban forms that encourage walking, cycling and increased use of public transportation if they are aware about the possible modal shares, energy efficiency, environmental performance and carbon implications of transportation in existing and newly planned neighbourhoods.

This Doctoral Thesis examines Swedish urbanisation and the historical integration of public transportation in competition with other transportation modes. It analyses emergence of typical neighbourhoods that oriented towards walking (the pre-industrial city), to public transportation (the industrializing city), to the private automobile (the modern/industrial city) and ultimately to a wide range of mobility choices (the postmodern/post-industrial city with sustainable city neighbourhoods). It investigates furthermore the effect of urban form variables (including neighbourhood type) on travel (modal shares of public transportation). Based upon this empirical knowledge, the Doctoral Thesis proposes a mobility choices model based on urban form and accessibility factors commonly used in urban planning, design and development practices. The mobility choices model produces heat maps and visually informs about the integration with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car, modal shares, carbon emissions and transportation energy use. This information can (potentially) trigger urban transformation or redesign car-oriented neighbourhoods to better integrate energy efficient and environmentally friendly mobility alternatives and catalyse the development of more sustainable cities.

Abstract [sv]

Den urbana utmaningen är att bryta transportsystemets oljeberoende och miljöpåverkan. Transporterna drivs idag av begränsade fossila bränslen som intensifierar klimatförändringar. Ambitionen är att skapa integrerade, multimodala transportsystem där det är lätt att gå, cykla och fullt utnyttja kollektivtrafikens potential.

Många stadsdelar och städer, särskilt i Sverige, utformades enligt privatbilismens credo om frihet att röra sig när som helst och vart som helst. Idag är det omöjligt att gå eller cykla och kollektivtrafiken är inte konkurrenskraftig i flesta städer som utvecklades för privata bilen. Stadens form hindrar möjligheterna att flytta från privata bilen till mer hållbara resealternativ. Stadsplanerare kan hjälpa till att förändra bilanpassade stadsdelar och bygga nya stadsmiljöer som uppmuntrar gång, cykel och kollektivtrafik, om de får information om transportenergieffektivitet och miljöpåverkan.

Denna doktorsavhandling undersöker den svenska urbaniseringen och anpassning av kollektivtrafiken i svenska städer. Den analyserar utveckling av typiska stadsdelar anpassade för att gå (den preindustriella staden), åka kollektivtrafik (den industrialiseringsstaden), privatbilismen (den moderna industriella staden) och den postmoderna/postindustriella staden (med nya hållbara stadsdelar som utvecklas vid multimodala alléer) samt undersöker effekten av bebyggelse (urbanformvariabler inklusive stadstyper eller typområde) på resvanor (andel kollektivtrafik). Utifrån denna empiriska kunskap, föreslår doktorsavhandlingen en transpordeklarationsmodell baserat på bebyggelse och tillgänglighetsfaktorer som vanligen används i stadsplanering, -utformning och -utveckling. En transportdeklaration är ett sätt att informera om hur väl en byggnad är integrerad i förhållande till gång-, cykel- och kollektivtrafik samt trafik med privatbil. Transpordeklarationen producerar kartor och informerar visuellt möjligheter att gå, cykla, åka kollektivt och köra bil, prognoserar färdmedelsfördelning, koldioxidutsläpp och transportenergianvändning. Denna information kan (potentiellt) inspirera stadsförvandling och omforma bilanpassade stadsdelar för att bättre integrera energieffektiva och miljövänliga mobilitetsalternativ och katalysera utvecklingen mot hållbara städer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 150
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1911
Keywords [en]
urban form, sustainable mobility, mobility choices, urban design, accessibility
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Architectural Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251325ISBN: 978-91-7873-235-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-251325DiVA, id: diva2:1315118
Public defence
2019-06-14, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, 2009-01233Vinnova, 2015-03483Swedish Transport Administration, A-2013-0962Swedish Energy Agency, P44455-1
Note

QC20190515

Available from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-11 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD): How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD): How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation compared with the private car are identified as main obstacles. New questions emerged: Is it possible to transform and adjust the Swedish towns and cities for BRT? What demands BRT? How is transit-oriented development (TOD) applicable in a Swedish context as a policy to integrate cities and BRT?

In this licentiate thesis I investigate the interrelationship between bus transportation and neighborhoods, between BRT and urban form as well as the possibilities to introduce busways and BRT, to trigger TOD and to transform the Swedish towns and cities for BRT. Much has been written about BRT, but seldom by architects or urban planners and designers. BRT and TOD are seen though urban form and processes of urbanization within a morphological tradition established by Kevin Lynch. BRT is represented by paths and nodes that disperse distinctive attractiveness pattern of desirability cores that shape neighborhoods as districts. TOD is about synchronizing the everyday urban life with public transportation systems. BRT-TOD is defined as a policy to recognize desirability cores spread by the different infrastructures of BRT and promote development of urban form within their attractiveness pattern at urban and regional scale. BRT-TOD is discussed as a concept of BRT metropolis in context of the urbanization of Swedish towns and cities.

 TOD is defined morphologically as public transport cities. A public transport city is a city that in its development adapted to specific public transportation systems. TOD is nothing new in Europe or Sweden. To find regularities of the effect of public transportation systems on cities I do a historical overview of the Swedish towns and cities. In the end the position of bus and BRT, public transport cities and TOD and possibilities of future urban transformation of the smaller and larger Swedish cities towards BRT metropolises are discussed in context of today’s “‘system’ of automobility” and widespread car society and the emerging knowledge society and its postmodern fringes of urbanization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. p. xvi, 89
Series
TRITA-TEC-LIC, ISSN 1653-445X ; 13:007
Keywords
bus rapid transit (BRT), transit-oriented development (TOD), bus transportation, neighborhood, urban form, urban morphology, urbanization
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128526 (URN)978-91-87353-16-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2013-09-11, L1, Drottning Kristinas väg 30, KTH, Stockholm, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVA, 2009-01233
Note

QC 20130917

Available from: 2013-09-17 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2019-05-11Bibliographically approved
2. Urban design and public transportation – public spaces, visual proximity and Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban design and public transportation – public spaces, visual proximity and Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
2019 (English)In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Walking distances conventionally define service areas for public transportation and urban growth boundaries for Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). Urban designers accordingly draw rings around transit stops and arrange transit-supportive land uses within 10-minute walksheds. This approach to TOD neglects processes of creating public spaces in visual proximity of transit stops. This paper proposes a methodology to analyze public spaces and looks at how commercialization and public space patterns unfold through viewsheds around transit stops. The results reveal amoebic TOD patterns of public spaces that are much smaller than conventional walking radii. This alternative viewshed approach can be helpful in designing TODs.

National Category
Architectural Engineering Infrastructure Engineering Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis; Architecture; Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251322 (URN)10.1080/13574809.2019.1592665 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P44455-1Vinnova, 2009-01233Vinnova, 2015-03483
Note

QC 20190619

Available from: 2019-05-11 Created: 2019-05-11 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
3. How density, diversity, land use and neighborhood type influences bus mobility in the swedish city of karlstad: Mixing spatial analytic and typo-morphological approaches to assess the indirect effect of urban form on travel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How density, diversity, land use and neighborhood type influences bus mobility in the swedish city of karlstad: Mixing spatial analytic and typo-morphological approaches to assess the indirect effect of urban form on travel
2018 (English)In: Journal of Transport and Land Use, ISSN 1938-7849, E-ISSN 1938-7849, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 769-789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the research on the effect of urban form on travel, a set of D-variables (density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, etc.) describes land use. Typo-morphology studies the historical emergence and evolution of urban patterns and their elements. In the typo-morphological approach, land use is an underlying element of neighborhood type. Neighborhood type defines urban areas that are relatively similar according to a range of attributes, such as building types, lot sizes, street layouts and land uses. This paper juxtaposes these two approaches to investigate the effect of density and diversity, land use and neighborhood type on bus mobility in the Swedish city of Karlstad. The results show that the number of residents and jobs in standard 400-meter walksheds around bus stops explains a third of the variation in bus ridership, which corresponds to previous studies in Sweden. The scatter plots with neighborhood types indicate that bus patronage variables and the D-variables cluster in intervals. This information about ranges and maximums in bus patronage in different neighborhood types is particularly important for urban designers and planners who work with typologies, form-based codes (FBCs) or transit-oriented development (TOD).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Minnesota, 2018
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247238 (URN)10.5198/jtlu.2018.1089 (DOI)000475474400019 ()2-s2.0-85055750194 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2017-003267
Note

QC 20190402

Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-07-29Bibliographically approved
4. Urban Form and Mobility Choices: Informing about Sustainable Travel Alternatives, Carbon Emissions and Energy Use from Transportation in Swedish Neighbourhoods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban Form and Mobility Choices: Informing about Sustainable Travel Alternatives, Carbon Emissions and Energy Use from Transportation in Swedish Neighbourhoods
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lack of mobility choices in many Swedish neighbourhoods and cities designed for automobiles hinders the possibilities to shift towards more sustainable travel alternatives. Urban designers and planners can help with redesigning these neighbourhoods and creating urban forms that encourage walking, cycling and increased use of public transportation if they are informed about the environmental performance and carbon implications of transportation systems in existing and newly planned neighbourhoods. This paper proposes a mobility choices model based on urban form and accessibility factors commonly used in urban planning and design practices. The mobility choices model produces heat maps and visually informs about the integration with walking, cycling, public transportation and private car, modal shares, carbon emissions and transportation energy use. This information can (potentially) trigger urban transformation or redesign to better integrate sustainable travel alternatives in these neighbourhoods and contribute to more sustainable cities. Many houses can have an excellent environmental performance as buildings but they can be located at a distance where it is impossible to walk, cycle or use public transportation. The benefits of energy efficient and carbon neutral home then disappears with extensive travel and commuting by automobile.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
urban form, mobility choices, transportation, environmental performance, modal split, energy use, carbon emissions
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244124 (URN)10.3390/su11020548 (DOI)000457129900252 ()2-s2.0-85060283774 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190218

Available from: 2019-02-18 Created: 2019-02-18 Last updated: 2019-05-11Bibliographically approved

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