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Effects of dietary fat on insulin secretion in subjects with the metabolic syndrome
Univ Oslo, Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Morbid Obes & Prevent Med, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Chron Dis & Ageing, Oslo, Norway.
Univ Oslo, Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Endocrinol Morbid Obes & Prevent Med, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Fac Med, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Nutr, Oslo, Norway.
Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Conway Inst, Nutrigen Res Grp, Dublin, Ireland;Univ Coll Dublin, UCD Inst Food & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth Physiotherapy & Sports Sci, Dublin, Ireland;Univ Limerick, Sch Allied Hlth, Limerick, Ireland;La Trobe Univ, Sch Allied Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
Univ Reading, Dept Food Biosci, Hugh Sinclair Unit Human Nutr, Reading, Berks, England;Queens Univ Belfast, Northern Ireland Technol Ctr, Inst Global Food Secur, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 180, no 5, p. 321-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Impaired insulin secretion and action contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat modification may improve insulin sensitivity, whereas the effect on insulin secretion is unclear. We investigated the effect of dietary fat modification on insulin secretion in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.

Design: In a 12-week pan-European parallel, randomized controlled dietary intervention trial (LIPGENE), 486 subjects were assigned to four isoenergetic diets: high-fat diets rich in saturated fat (HSFA) or monounsaturated fat (HMUFA) or low-fat, high-complex carbohydrate diets with (LFHCC n-3) or without (LFHCC control) 1.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA supplementation. Insulin secretion was estimated as acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) and disposition index (DI), modeled from an intravenous glucose tolerance test.

Results: There were no overall effect of the dietary intervention on AIRg and DI in the total cohort, in neither the highfat nor LFHCC groups. We observed significant diet*fasting glucose category interactions for AIRg (P = 0.021) and DI (P = 0.001) in the high-fat groups. In subjects with normal fasting glucose and preserved first phase insulin secretion, the HMUFA diet increased, whereas the HSFA diet reduced AIRg (P = 0.015) and DI (P = 0.010).

Conclusions: The effects of dietary fat modification on insulin secretion were minor, and only evident in normoglycemic subjects. In this case, the HMUFA diet improved AIRg and DI, as compared to the HSFA diet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BIOSCIENTIFICA LTD , 2019. Vol. 180, no 5, p. 321-328
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Nutrition and Dietetics Endocrinology and Diabetes
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URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382818DOI: 10.1530/EJE-19-0022ISI: 000464997600007PubMedID: 30893645OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-382818DiVA, id: diva2:1313726
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-05-06Bibliographically approved

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