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WARD: Wear aware RAID design within SSDs
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics, Electronic and embedded systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0061-3475
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, ISSN 0278-0070, E-ISSN 1937-4151, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 2918-2928, article id 8493504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Redundant arrays of independent disk (RAID) is an efficient approach to relieve reliability sacrifice caused by aggressive scale-out of solid state drives (SSDs). Unfortunately, RAID is unfriendly to SSDs due to redundant parity write and data rebuilding. This paper proposes a wear aware RAID design for SSDs, called WARD, which: 1) adaptively organizes RAID stripes according to real-time interblock unbalanced wear for relieving high performance and storage overhead caused by parity data and 2) migrates blocks about to break in advance and leaves these blocks unused to reduce data rebuilding overhead. An efficient block wear detection scheme is employed to detect block wear during the whole lifetime of SSDs. Beginning with a large stripe width RAID instead of the redundant worst-case RAID, WARD reorganizes RAID stripes once wear blocks with high bit error rates come out. WARD divides the original stripe into several short width RAID stripes according to the number of wear blocks and separates all wear blocks into different stripes. This not only reduces parity redundancy but also provides high reliability to avoid more than RAID recoverable error-prone chunks remaining in one stripe. For high wear blocks tending to wear-out, data in them are migrated in advance and then the blocks are left unused, which efficiently avoids performance shock caused by data rebuilding. A reliability model considering interblock unbalanced wear is proposed and reveals that WARD provides a high and stable reliability and greatly prolongs the lifetime of SSDs. Comprehensive experiments based on an SSDsim derivative simulator are carried out and experiment results show that WARD considerably improves system performance compared to the worst-case RAID.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018. Vol. 37, no 11, p. 2918-2928, article id 8493504
Keywords [en]
Performance, redundant arrays of independent disk (RAID) within solid state drives (SSDs), reliability, wear aware, Digital storage, Redundancy, High bit error rates, High reliability, Reliability model, Solid state drives, Stable reliability, Storage overhead, Wear detection, Wear of materials
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247100DOI: 10.1109/TCAD.2018.2858339ISI: 000447854500065Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85055270660OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-247100DiVA, id: diva2:1302252
Note

QC 201904040

Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Lu, Zhonghai
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