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Material development of a textile bioreactor: All-polyamide composite for the construction of bioreactors
University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1404-9134
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
According to the author(s), the content of this publication falls within the area of sustainable development.
Abstract [en]

Bioreactors are manufactured from stainless/carbon steel, concrete, glass, etc., which are costly and time-consuming to install. Recently, several research studies have been initiated to find cost-efficient materials for constructing bioreactors, one of which is coated textiles. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated polyester textile (PVCT) has been used for this purpose to make bioreactors more cost-effective and easier to install. In this thesis, the thermal insulation property of PVCT was improved, that enhances the energy efficiency of the process carried out within the bioreactor. However, recycling PVCT is challenging, as it is a mixture of PVC, polyester fabric, a plasticizer for the PVC, chemical linkers, and other processing-aid additives. A possible solution to address these issues is to use a coated textile composed of a single material. The polyester fabric can be replaced with a better performing fabric, such as polyamide, that generally has a longer lifetime as well as higher mechanical stability and is light-weight. A facile method was introduced to make a same-polymer coated textiles composite out of polyamide through the partial dissolution of the fabric’s surface followed by coagulation. The all-polyamide composite coated textiles (APCT) is mechanically stronger and more thermally stable than the PVCT as well as having less weight. Additionally, the APCT is fully recyclable as it contains only a single component. This property can be beneficial for the recyclability of the material. The APCT can be used in the construction of textile bioreactors as well as other applications that require gas-/water-tightness and flexibility at the same time. In addition, a new solvent for polyamide was proposed which can be used for the preparation of the APCT. A computer-assisted theoretical solvent selection method based on the Hansen solubility parameters was also introduced. The findings of this research can increase the economic efficiency of the biofuel production process by decreasing the initial investment. From a technical perspective, the methods introduced in this thesis can encourage researchers in related fields to produce same-polymer composites and find/replace solvent(s) in a more efficient way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2019.
Series
Skrifter från Högskolan i Borås, ISSN 0280-381X ; 94
Keywords [en]
textile bioreactor, biofuel, coated fabric; all-polyamide composite, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), solvent replacement, Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs)
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-15939ISBN: 978-91-88838-28-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-88838-29-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-15939DiVA, id: diva2:1301546
Public defence
2020-01-31, E310, Allégatan 1, Borås, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2020-02-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Novel lightweight and highly thermally insulative silica aerogel-doped poly (vinyl chloride)-coated fabric composite
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel lightweight and highly thermally insulative silica aerogel-doped poly (vinyl chloride)-coated fabric composite
2015 (English)In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 34, no 19, p. 1581-1592Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel lightweight and highly thermal insulative aerogel-doped poly(vinyl chloride)-coated fabric composites wereprepared on woven fabrics made of polyester fibres using knife coating method, and their performances were comparedwith neat composite. The composites were prepared by incorporating a commercial aerogel to a ‘green’ poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) plastisol. The effect of aerogel-content, thermal insulating property, thermal degradation, surface characteristics,tensile and physical properties of the composites were investigated. Results revealed that aerogel couldreduce thermal conductivity, density and hydrophilicity of the composites dramatically without significant decrease inother properties. Experimental results showed that thermal insulation properties were enhanced by 26% (from 205 to152 mW/m-K), density decreased by 17% (from 1.132 to 0.941 g/cm3) and hydrophobicity increased by 16.4% (from76.02 to 88.671.48) with respect to the unmodified coated fabric. Analyses proved that composite with 3% aerogel isthe lightest by weight, while 4% showed the highest thermal insulation. The results showed that 4% is the criticalpercentage, and preparation of composites with aerogel content higher than 4% has limitations with the given formulationdue to high viscosity of plastisol. The prepared composite has potential applications in many fields such asdevelopment of textile bioreactors for ethanol/biogas production from waste materials, temporary houses and tents,facade coverings, container linings and tarpaulins. The prepared composite can be considered ‘green’ due to usage of anon-phthalate environment-friendly plasticiser.

Keywords
Poly(vinyl chloride)-coated fabric, silica aerogel composite, thermal insulation, lightweight PVC, thermal conductivity coefficient, Knudsen effect, transient plane source, environment-friendly (green) poly(vinyl chloride)
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-3733 (URN)000361155500002 ()2-s2.0-84945903473 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-06 Created: 2015-12-06 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
2. Introducing all-polyamide composite coated fabrics: A method to produce fully recyclable single-polymer composite coated fabrics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introducing all-polyamide composite coated fabrics: A method to produce fully recyclable single-polymer composite coated fabrics
2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 133, no 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel all-polyamide composite (APC) has been developed to replace traditional coated fabrics with good interfacial adhesionand enhanced recyclability. The composite is fully recyclable since it contains no other materials except polyamide. APC was preparedby partially dissolving a polyamide fabric by treatment with a film-forming polyamide solution. The effect of the polyamidesolution concentration and gelling time on tensile and viscoelastic properties of APCs was investigated to explore the optimum processingparameters for balancing the good interfacial adhesion. The composite properties were studied by dynamic mechanical thermalanalysis (DMTA), tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a good adhesion between the coatingand the fabric. A new method was introduced to convert a low value added textile waste to a high value-added product. The compositeis tunable, in terms of having a dense or a porous top-layer depending on the end-use requirements.

Keywords
coatings, films, polyamides, recycling, textiles, coated fabrics, single-polymer composites
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-3739 (URN)10.1002/app.42829 (DOI)000367845800001 ()2-s2.0-84948577513 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-06 Created: 2015-12-06 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
3. All-polyamide composite coated-fabric as an alternative material of construction for textile-bioreactors (TBRs)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-polyamide composite coated-fabric as an alternative material of construction for textile-bioreactors (TBRs)
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

All-polyamide composite coated-fabric (APCCF) was used as an alternative material for the construction of textile-bioreactors (TBRs), which are prepared as a replacement of the traditional stainless steel bioreactors (SSBRs) or concrete-based bioreactors. The material characteristics, as well as the fermentation process performance of the APCCF-TBR, was compared with a TBR made using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated polyester fabric (PVCCF). The TBRs were used for the anaerobic fermentation process using baker's yeast; and, for aerobic fermentation process using filamentous fungi, primarily by using waste streams from ethanol industries as the substrates. The results from the fermentation experiments were similar with those that were obtained from the cultivations that were carried out in conventional bioreactors. The techno-economic analysis conducted using a 5000 m3 APCCF-TBR for a typical fermentation facility would lead to a reduction of the annual production cost of the plant by 128,000,000 when compared to similar processes in SSBR. The comparative analyses (including mechanical and morphological studies, density measurements, thermal stability, ageing, and techno-economic analyses) revealed that the APCCF is a better candidate for the material of construction of the TBR. As the APCCF is a 100% recyclable single-polymer composite, which was prepared from Nylon 66 textile production-line waste, it could be considered as an environmentally sustainable product. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
All-polyamide coated-fabric, Edible filamentous fungi cultivation, Nylon 66, Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coated-textile, Single-polymer composite, Techno-economic analysis, Textile bioreactor, Waste management, Yeast fermentation
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-14814 (URN)10.3390/en10111928 (DOI)000417046500247 ()2-s2.0-85035113895 (Scopus ID)19961073 (ISSN) (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2020-01-08
4. New Solvent for Polyamide 66 and Its Use for Preparing a Single-Polymer Composite-Coated Fabric
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Solvent for Polyamide 66 and Its Use for Preparing a Single-Polymer Composite-Coated Fabric
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polyamides (PAs) are one of the most important engineering polymers; however, the difficulty in dissolving them hinders their applications. Formic acid (FA) is the most common solvent for PAs, but it has industrial limitations. In this contribution, we proposed a new solvent system for PAs by replacing a portion of the FA with urea and calcium chloride (FAUCa). Urea imparts the hydrogen bonding and calcium ion from the calcium chloride, as a Lewis acid was added to the system to compensate for the pH decrease due to the addition of urea. The results showed that the proposed solvent (FAUCa) could readily dissolve PAs, resulting in a less decrease in the mechanical properties during the dissolution. The composite prepared using the FAUCa has almost the same properties as the one prepared using the FA solution. The solution was applied on a polyamide 66 fabric to make an all-polyamide composite-coated fabric, which then was characterized. The FAUCa solution had a higher viscosity than the one prepared using the neat FA solvent, which can be an advantage in the applications which need higher viscosity like preparing the all-polyamide composite-coated fabric. A more viscous solution makes a denser coating which will increase the water /gas tightness. In conclusion, using the FAUCa solvent has two merits: (1) replacement of 40% of the FA with less harmful and environmentally friendly chemicals and (2) enabling for the preparation of more viscous solutions, which makes a denser coating.

National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-21557 (URN)10.1155/2018/6235165 (DOI)000448619700001 ()2-s2.0-85062636745 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2020-01-08
5. Computer-aided theoretical solvent selection using the simplex method based on Hansen solubility parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computer-aided theoretical solvent selection using the simplex method based on Hansen solubility parameters
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Journal of Information Technology & Software Engineering, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 1000242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Solvent selection is a crucial step in all solvent-involved processes. Using the Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs)could provide a solvent/solvent-mixture, but there are two main challenges: 1) What solvents should be selected? 2)From each solvent, how much should be added to the mixture? There is no straightforward way to answer the twochallenging questions. This contribution proposes a computer-aided method for selecting solvents (answer to thequestion 1) and finding the adequate amount of each solvent (answer to the question 2) to form a mixture of 2, 3 or4 solvents to dissolve a solute with known HSPs or to replace a solvent. To achieve this, a sophisticated computersoftware package was developed to find the optimized mixture using the mathematical Simplex algorithm based onHSPs values from a database of 234 solvents. To get a list of solvent-mixtures, polyamide66 was tested using itsHSPs. This technique reduces the laboratory effort required in selecting and screening solvent blends while allowinga large number of candidate solvents to be considered for inclusion in a blend. The outcome of this paper significantlydiminished the time of solvent development experimentation by decreasing the possible/necessary trials. Thus, themost suitable solvent/solvent-substitution can be found by the least possible effort; hence, it will save time and costof all solvent-involved processes in the fields of chemistry, polymer and coating industries, chemical engineering, etc.

Keywords
Hansen solubility parameters; Solvent mixture; Solvent substitution; Simplex method, Linear programming, Quadratic minimization, Solvent screening
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-22384 (URN)10.4172/2165-7866.1000242 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08
6. Finding solvent for polyamide 11 using a computer software
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Finding solvent for polyamide 11 using a computer software
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, ISSN 0942-9352Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The solvent finding step has always been a time-consuming job in chemical-involved processes. The source of difficulty mainly comes from the trial-and-errors, as a repetitive process of chosing solvents and mixing them in different proportions. Computers are good at doing repetitive processes; however, they can only deal with numerical values, rather than qulitative scales. Numerification of qualitative parameters (like solubility) has already been introduced. The most recent one is the Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs). Using the HSPs could provide a solvent or solvent-mixture. In our previous study, we introduced a computer-aided model and a software to find a solvent mixture. In this study, we have used the computer-aided solvent selection model to find some solvent mixtures for polyamide 11, a biobased polymer which has attracted enormous attention recently. Using this numerical model significantly diminished the time of solvent development experimentation by decreasing the possible/necessary trials.

Keywords
Hansen solubility parameters, polyamide 11, nylon, solvent mixture, solvent screening, solvent substitution, the Simplex method
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery; Resource Recovery
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-22385 (URN)10.1515/zpch-2018-1299 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-14Bibliographically approved

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