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Ethical considerations in researching sport and social entrepreneurship
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6198-2843
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3970-9792
Malmö university, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 216-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article is to discuss ethical dilemmas that occur in doing research on social entrepreneurial sport ventures. Three cases that highlight ethical dilemmas in research on social entrepreneurship and sport are presented and ethically reflected upon. The data comprise interviews with representatives, field notes from observations and analyses of documents concerning the ventures. Three things make research in this area extra problematic: first, ‘social good’ in social entrepreneurship and sport implies a normative perspective. It is permeated by ideology and ethics. Second, what is considered as ‘social good’ may differ between sectors of society as the entrepreneur crosses boundaries. What is valid as a resource and capital in one sector might not be so in another one, and what is legal within one sector may be illegal in another. Third, social entrepreneurs may have their own intentions with regard to participating in research, which may challenge our credibility as researchers. Therefore, we need, as professionals, to take a step back and be both critical of our work and make this criticism visible, which is to some extent what we are doing by writing this article.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018. Vol. 15, no 3, p. 216-233
Keywords [en]
Research ethics, ethical dilemma, sport research, qualitative research, entrepreneurship
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81513DOI: 10.1080/16138171.2018.1475097ISI: 000469845900002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85061393507OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-81513DiVA, id: diva2:1300755
Funder
The Kamprad Family FoundationAvailable from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Idrott som medel – inte som mål: Förutsättningar för socialt entreprenörskap inom idrotten
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idrott som medel – inte som mål: Förutsättningar för socialt entreprenörskap inom idrotten
2020 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Sport as a means - not as a goal : Preconditions for social entrepreneurship in sport
Abstract [en]

In sport management research, little attention has been paid to the relatively new concept of social entrepreneurship. In short, the concept refers to innovative methods of creating and satisfying social values through sport. However, research has shown that social entrepreneurs in sporting contexts are having difficulties in creating sustainable businesses. In addition to that the economic preconditions for social entreprenurial undertakings are uncertain, more research is needed on the general preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. Hence, the aim of this compilation thesis, which consists of five papers, is to examine and analyse the preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, the subject of research (i.e., social entreprenurship in sport) is presented and defined. This is done by contextualising social entrepreneurship, analysing previous research on social entrepreneurship in sport, theoretically defining the concept and describing some research ethical issues that might arise in studies of social entrepreneurship. The second part of the thesis consists of three empirical studies of organisational, economic and political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport. The findings from this thesis are based on an extensive literature review and five case studies in which multiple methods of data collection were used (interviews, documents and observations). The first paper, Sport and social entrepreneurship: a review of a concept in progress, shows that research on social entrepreneurship in sport is limited, the concept is seldom defined and sometimes used in ways more similar to philanthropy or corporate social responsibility. Also, sport only plays a minor role in the reviewed literature. The second paper, Ethical considerations in researching sport and social entrepreneurship, discusses some of the ethical dilemmas that have occurred when researching social entrepreneurship in sport. These dilemmas can, for example, be related to the principle of confidentiality. The third paper, Social entrepreneurship, sport and democracy development, offers an explanation of how to understand the “social” dimension in the concept of social entrepreneurship in sport. The social is ultimately about democracy in the sense that the participants are recognised, are given influence and are included in the organisation and in its community. The fourth paper, Networking as a cornerstone within the practice of social entrepreneurship in sport, focuses on how social entrepreneurial sport organisations can achieve economic sustainability by using their networks. The analysis shows, for instance, that the network of a social entrepreneurial sport organisation encompasses many actors from all sectors of society, and that the networks themselves assume many forms. The fifth and final paper, Swedish sport policy in an era of neoliberalism: An expression of social entrepreneurship?, provides an analysis of political preconditions for conducting social entrepreneurship in sport in Sweden. The paper, for example, argues that some political initiatives in the Swedish sport policy can be regarded as social innovations, since these aim to both solve certain identified social problems in society in general (e.g., social inclusion), or in sport in particular (e.g., making sport activities more accessible by lowering costs). In sum, this thesis contributes with: (a) empirical examples of social entrepreneurial sport organisations; (b) a theoretical understanding of the “social” dimension of social entrepreneurship in sport; (c) an ethical discussion on the role of researchers; and (d) a starting point when discussing the Swedish government support for sport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Malmö universitet, 2020. p. 254
Series
Malmö Studies in Sport Sciences, ISSN 1652–3180 ; 34
Keywords
Development through sport, Network theory, Research ethics, Social innovation in sport, Sport and social responsibility, Sport for development, Swedish sport policy, Welfare triangle
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93100 (URN)978-91-86295-91-2 (ISBN)978-91-86295-90-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-02-07, D 138, Nordenskiöldsgatan 10, Malmö, 13:15
Available from: 2020-04-17 Created: 2020-03-24 Last updated: 2020-04-17Bibliographically approved

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Bjärsholm, DanielGerrevall, PerLinnér, SusanneSchenker, Katarina
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