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Recovery of scandium by crystallization techniques
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
Middle East Technical University, Mining Engineering Department, Ankara, Turkey.
MEAB Chemie Technik GmbH, Aachen, Germany.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3239-5188
2019 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3823, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-56Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bauxite residues, i.e., red mud, can be processed to recover various valuable end products, while reducing the environmental impact of the waste. Scandium is one of the valuable elements in bauxite residues. It is possible to extract and enrich scandium from red mud by leaching and solvent extraction. Scandium can then be recovered from the pregnant strip liquor by crystallization. Different crystallization techniques can be used to generate the supersaturation required for scandium to crystallize out as a salt. In the present study, the crystallization of an ammonium scandium fluoride phase by cooling and antisolvent crystallization techniques is presented. Cooling crystallization gave a low yield of ammonium scandium hexafluoride, (NH4)3ScF6, below 50% at the lowest temperature of 1 °C investigated. Antisolvent crystallization using ethanol gave almost complete recovery with precipitation efficiency greater than 98% for an ethanol-to-strip liquor volumetric ratio of 0.8. Solubility data of (NH4)3ScF6 under different temperatures and in different ethanol–strip liquor mixtures is herein presented. The product obtained by antisolvent crystallization had very minute crystals (< 2 µm) due to the high supersaturation generated upon adding ethanol to the strip liquor, while it was easier to obtain larger crystals by cooling crystallization. Fe and Ti impurities were detected in the solid product, and an insight into the mechanism of impurity uptake is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. Vol. 5, no 1, p. 48-56
Keywords [en]
Ammonium scandium hexafluoride, Cooling crystallization, Antisolvent crystallization, Purity, Solubility, Impurity incorporation
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-240667DOI: 10.1007/s40831-019-00210-4ISI: 000458966400004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85062407192OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-240667DiVA, id: diva2:1282973
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 730105
Note

QC 20190128

Available from: 2019-01-28 Created: 2019-01-28 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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