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"Framtiden tillhör informatörerna”: samhällsinformationens formering i Sverige 1965–1975
Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8820-1082
2019 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
”The Future Belongs to the Information Officers” : the Formation of Governmental Information in Sweden 1965–1975 (English)
Abstract [en]

This dissertation is about the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the period 1965 to 1975. During this period information related issues were high up on the political agenda, in Sweden and internationally. I argue that the period is of particular interest in order to understand the impact and development of governmental information in Sweden, even for our time. One overreaching research question has guided this study: What ideas and practices characterized how and why the state disseminated information to the public? The thesis uses four tensions to study the formation of governmental information in Sweden during the late 1960s and early 1970s: (1) information as a solution – information as a problem, (2) dissemination of information – control over information, (3) information through mass communication – information through interpersonal dialogue, and (4) governmental information – commercial information. These tensions draw theoretically from John Durham Peters’ notions of communication.

The thesis uses strands from three research fields: PR-history, cultural histories of media, and digital humanities. The four papers use different theoretical perspectives in order to shed new light on of the formation of governmental information in Sweden. Adding to that, and to theoretically tie the papers together, the thesis presents an overarching network perspective with a special focus on conceptual history as a means to better understand how governmental information was discussed as well as practiced. Different methods are used to study the formation of governmental information. The latter is partly because of the political issue’s porous boundaries and fragmented-oriented character, and partly due to the lack of previous research with a problematizing and historical approach to governmental information in Sweden. The thesis combines qualitative and quantitative methods to study different aspects how the state communicated with the public.

This dissertation presents new findings about the formation of governmental information during the period 1965 to 1975. One regards the different intersections of governmental information. It shows that the production and dissemination of information from agencies to citizens was far from “pure” governmental information, and rather entangled with various actors from industry, academy and civil society. A second finding concerns the language of governmental information. Here, the dissertation shows – through large-scale digital text methods – how the concept of “information” exploded in usages from the 1960s and onwards, and how “information” as a discursive element infiltrated a growing number of political topics from the same period and onwards. A third finding centers on the media of governmental information. One result shows how broadly academics and bureaucrats defined the concept of media in relation to the practice of governmental information. All kinds of media devices, and not only the traditional news media, were considered important for the purpose of disseminating information on large scale to the public. Lastly, this dissertation reveals governmental information as without guaranties. Overall it shows how information from state agencies to citizens was generated through various conflicting tensions that have to be addressed, but without any hope of finding a balance free from communication problems. These problems tend to reoccur in different settings through history, also visible today. This result should however not be regarded as a pessimistic standpoint, rather it calls for modesty in terms of communication in general, and governmental information in particular.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet , 2019. , p. 125
Series
Medier & kommunikation, ISSN 1104-067X ; 18
Keywords [en]
public information, governmental information, public campaign, Sweden, digital humanities, digital text analysis, 1960s, 1970s, network, PR-history, cultural histories of media, conceptual history
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Communication Studies Media Studies
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155387ISBN: 978-91-7855-004-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-155387DiVA, id: diva2:1278738
Public defence
2019-02-08, Hörsal G. Humanisthuset, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-01-18 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Information som lösning, information som problem: En digital läsning av tusentals statliga utredningar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information som lösning, information som problem: En digital läsning av tusentals statliga utredningar
2016 (Swedish)In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 9-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates how the Swedish information politics emerged in the twentieth century by analysing thousands of Swedish Governmental Official Reports (8000 reports since 1922). By using methods such as topic modelling with LDA/MALLET, the result shows that a governmental information discourse arose in the 1960s, infiltrating a growing number of political interests, and that the content of the discourse has changed over time.

One important conclusion highlights digital text methods as a more inductive way of doing content analysis than is commonly practised in media and communication studies. A machine can find patterns in texts that no single person could read in a lifetime. Furthermore, the quantitative approach can generate results that problematise previous – qualitative – research. Digital and quantitative analysis of a huge corpora does not neglect close reading; on the contrary this study shows the necessity of bridging both methods in order to better understand the results.

Keywords
information politics, topic modeling, digital methods, Swedish governmental official reports
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-142786 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
2. Deliberation or Manipulation: The Issue of Governmental Information in Sweden around 1970
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliberation or Manipulation: The Issue of Governmental Information in Sweden around 1970
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article focuses on conflicting ideas of governmental information in public discussions in Sweden in late 1960s and early 1970s. The purpose is to analyze alternative ideas that were put forward as contrast to the government’s notion of a governmental information policy. It further analyzes how these different ideas conceptualized the relationship between the state and the citizen in terms of the capacity to govern respectively exercise influence on the course of society. The result shows that governmental information was a highly contested issue at that time, even regarding rudimentary aspects that can be taken for granted today.

Keywords
governmental information, information debate information policy, commission of inquiry, information flow
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155445 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-16
3. H-Day 1967: an alternative perspective on “propaganda” in the historiography of public relation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>H-Day 1967: an alternative perspective on “propaganda” in the historiography of public relation
2019 (English)In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article presents an alternative perspective regarding the concept of “propaganda” in the historiography of public relations. Recent scholars of public relations have rightly criticized early attempts to write the field’s history as a linear progression, from propaganda to excellence. At the same time, however, these recent scholars have come to accept a linear conceptual change, and that “propaganda” became an impossible term in liberal democratic countries in the 1960s. By using the empirical case of the massive communication efforts initiated by the Swedish Commission on Right-Hand Traffic, which was assigned to implement right-hand traffic in 1967, this article shows that the concept of “propaganda” both occurred frequently and was used in a neutral sense. To deepen the understanding of this alternative perspective, the article both presents how the historical actors conceptualized their work, and describes how the communication work of the Commission was performed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
propaganda, Sweden, historiography, government, campaigns
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Communication Studies
Research subject
medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155443 (URN)10.1016/j.pubrev.2018.10.004 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-31
4. '6 to 8 slices of bread': Swedish health information campaigns in the 1970s
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'6 to 8 slices of bread': Swedish health information campaigns in the 1970s
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 233-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish health information, conducted by the National Board of Health and Welfare in collaboration with private participants, expanded rapidly in the 1970s. This study examines a controversial bread campaign, which declared that the National Board, in collaboration with the private Bread Institute, wanted citizens to eat six to eight slices of bread every day. Why and how could such a seemingly unholy alliance come about? Contextualizing the collaborations with the industry, with a network governance approach, this article seeks the answers by investigating the organizational conditions behind the various campaigns. Different conflicting dilemmas influenced the campaigns and their outcomes. For example, the desire to maximize the dissemination of information, and at the same time controlling it, as well as the imbedded power dynamics between private and public sector. The result points to a shift from strong to weak interdependence between the government agency and collaborating parties, basically due to the agency's diminishing campaign resources, which opened up for a stronger commercialization of the bread campaign.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Sweden, health information, network governance, health education, information campaign, public information
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144755 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2018.1430567 (DOI)000428518100003 ()
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved

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