Endre søk
RefereraExporteraLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Sustainable Business Innovation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems
KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser. (Energy Processes)ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9129-7265
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The development of renewable energy technology provides an effective approach to replace fossil fuels for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Technological innovation and transfer are the main driving forces in promoting renewable energy usage, because of the better efficiency and economic payback under an emission reduction target. With three of the mechanisms of emission trading originating from the Kyoto Protocol, the most wildly accepted and important mechanism between developed and developing countries is the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The CDM has been implemented contributing the most of the trading carbon credits. In this study, by extracting and building an exclusive database of issued Chinese CDM projects, a modified multivariable logistic regression model for technology transfer’s correlation test with 11 extended indicators was investigated for the first time. Renewable energy projects were analyzed with certified emission reduction (CER) sizes, economic development, and geographic scopes.In addition, technological innovation should also be enhanced with new business developments to demonstrate and scale up technologies for better economic and environmental performances. This doctoral thesis studied photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) technology as a technological solution for integration with the new business model for development and co-benefits. The integration of PVWP with water saving irrigation techniques and sustainable management of water resources, leads to technical innovations, economic benefits, and climate benefits. Field measurements at a pilot PVWP system in Inner Mongolia were conducted with detailed economic performance analyses. Different scenarios for PVWP systems considering variant market incentives were proposed with internal rate of return (IRR), and discounted payback period analyses to develop a new business model approach for implementing PVWP systems with multi-value propositions. The environmental externalities were successfully addressed by evaluating the CO2 emission reduction credits. The economic assessment of feasible and optimal production processes for implementing PVWP systems in dairy milk production was conducted with self-supplied energy and forage assumptions. In comparison with other financing mechanisms, discrete choice model analyses were employed with interviews and costumer behavior surveys to explore the willingness to purchase through crowd funding mechanisms in financing integrated PVWP systems.The results showed that emission reduction mechanisms, such as CDM, have promoted the renewable energy development in China with the national incentives at an entrance level. Yet, the limited sizes and lower income from CERs of renewable energy projects than other projects, required renewable energy projects to develop more advanced technological innovations and business model innovations.  The PVWP systems represent the better technical and economic solutions under a feasible innovated business model in comparison with traditional photovoltaic (PV) systems and current PV business models. The dairy farms with integrated PVWP systems and self-sufficient feeds could improve their investment performance through extra energy saving and CO2 emission reductions. The semi-structured interviews and customer surveys’ results showed that customers can tolerate high prices, and are willing to crowd-fund nutritious and secure cow milk with environmental compensation characters. The results from the PVWP technology integration in China as a specific PV application study can be further applied for the business model of innovation of renewable energy systems in other regions of the world under emission reduction targets leading to economic and environmental benefits.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , s. 59
Serie
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:47
Emneord [en]
PV water pumping, Economic assessment, Ecological benefits, Business model innovation, Case study
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Kemiteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235816ISBN: 978-91-7729-972-1 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-235816DiVA, id: diva2:1254968
Disputas
2018-11-01, Kollegiesalen, KTH Campus, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

QC 20181010

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-11 Laget: 2018-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-22bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. CDM’s influence on technology transfers: A study of the implemented clean development mechanism projects in China
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>CDM’s influence on technology transfers: A study of the implemented clean development mechanism projects in China
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 158, s. 355-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Technology transfers through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol is one of the most important catalysts in the cooperation between developed (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries for climate change mitigation. With the large-scale implementation of CDM projects in recent years, it is important to timely and comprehensively analyze the effectiveness of technology transfers in these implemented projects on the level of individual countries. In this context, China is of particular significance as it is the biggest host country of CDM projects in the world; 50% of total CDM projects implemented from 2007 to 2012 have issued Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) to 60% of all of the CDM projects. In this study, we evaluated the performance of technology transfers in an exclusive database of 754 CDM projects hosted by China between 2007 and 2012 with issued CERs since CERs were first issued in China. In addition, we developed a logistic regression approach using 11-variables that include a series of extended technology transfer-based indicators from the perspectives of project design, economic level, and technology capability that have not been studied in detail in the past. The results show that technology transfers are more likely to occur in large-sized projects with higher CER incomes, in projects with international participants, and in projects involving types such as HFC-23 reduction, fuel substitute, and N<inf>2</inf>O decomposition, in comparison to projects involving renewable energy. We observed that over 90% of the technology transfer projects only include importation of equipment or training to China. In our findings of the regression results, it shows that technology transfers occurred more often in regions with lower technology capabilities, less energy consumption, and a lower GDP growth rate. Supported by high local technology capability and the governmental strategy with independent innovation, the advantages of introducing technology from other countries are offset by local technology diffusion. In a market view, financial incentives hinder CDM host parties from introducing new equipment or trainings for the high marginal cost, unless the high marginal cost of technology transfer can be offset by a large CDM with a high CER income. Technology transfer is more income-driven than sustainability-driven at the present stage in China. In our analysis, the drive out effect between HFC-23 and renewable projects in CDM suggests China government to publish more effective incentives to attract more sustainable types of CDM projects with a higher level of technology innovation. The results are also discussed in the context of policy issues, which can be helpful for the decision makers when formulating future sustainable strategic plans and policy.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Pergamon Press, 2015
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-174580 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.06.072 (DOI)000364880800030 ()2-s2.0-84940500134 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

QC 20151207

Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-12-07 Laget: 2015-10-07 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-10bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Economic performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems with business model innovation in China
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Economic performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems with business model innovation in China
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, s. 498-510Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Expansion by photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the renewable energy market requires exploring added value integrated with business model innovation. In recent years, a pilot trial of PV water pumping (PVWP) technologies for the conservation of grassland and farmland has been conducted in China. In this paper, we studied the added value of the PVWP technologies with an emphasis on the integration of the value proposition with the operation system and customer segmentation. Using the widely used existing PV business models (PV-roof) as a reference, we evaluated discounted cash flow (DCF) and net present value (NPV) under the scenarios of traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot, PVWP scale-up, and PVWP social network, where further added value via social network was included in the business model. The results show that the integrated PVWP system with social network products significantly improves the performance in areas such as the discounted payback period, internal rate of return (IRR), and return on investment (ROI). We conclude that scenario PVWP social network with business model innovation, can result in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, and market incentives. The paper also suggests that current policy incentives for PV industry are not efficient due to a limited source of revenue, and complex procedures of feed-in tariff verification.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2017
Emneord
Business model innovation, China, Discounted cash flow, Economic performance, Photovoltaic water pumping system, Commerce, Complex networks, Conservation, Earnings, Economics, Investments, Pumping plants, Pumps, Roofs, Photovoltaic water pumping, Innovation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201945 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2016.10.069 (DOI)000392678900040 ()2-s2.0-85006293755 (Scopus ID)
Merknad

Funding text: One of the authors, Chi Zhang, would like to thank the China Scholarship Council (CSC) and Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Sweden, for their financial support. National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2015AA050403) is also acknowledged. Previous studies on PVWP were supported by the Asian Development Bank, Swedish International development Agency (SIDA), and the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth (Swedish: Tillväxtverket).

QC 20170307

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-07 Laget: 2017-03-07 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-10bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Economic Assessment of Photovoltaic Water Pumping Integration with Dairy Milk Production
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Economic Assessment of Photovoltaic Water Pumping Integration with Dairy Milk Production
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

As dairy consumption grows, domestic dairy farms face challenges in reducing the cost of feeds and the production of high-quality milk for market demands. This paper aims to introduce and integrate solar energy into the milk production chain to investigate its economic performance. By collecting data on milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China, we quantified electricity usage and costs of milk production to identify the best and worst cases. Crop yields response to the water demand and the electricity requirements of the dairy farms were considered. The study simulated scenarios of self-sufficiency at 20%, 80%, and 100%, in the identified farms by integrating a photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system to provide both power and water for alfalfa and other feeds’ irrigation and subsequent milk production. We evaluated annual discounted cost, revenue and net profit under each scenario and case. The results showed that a dairy farm with an integrated PVWP system and self-sufficient feeds would lead to value add-ins, such as electricity saving with solar energy generation, economic cost saving of crops, and CO2 emission reduction. The analysis on return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR) revealed that not all the self-sufficient feeds can bring positive marginal profit. Among the investigated scenarios and cases, the dairy farm marked out by the highest ROI with 3.12 and IRR with 20.4%, was the farm where the integrated PVWP system was used to reach 20% self-sufficiency (self-production of only alfalfa). The other scenarios and cases with higher levels of self-sufficiency showed lower ROIs and IRRs. This indicates that high self-production levels of feeds decrease the total profit due to high investment cost. Sensitivity analyses of crop price and operational cost were conducted for ROI with single and double factor approaches. Scale and production of feeds proportions should be carefully considered in improving the economic performance of dairy milk production. 

Emneord
Photovoltaic Water Pumping, Solar Power, Economic Assessment, Milk Productivity, China
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235953 (URN)
Merknad

QC 20181011

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-10 Laget: 2018-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-11bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Crowd-funding Intention and Willingness-to-pay for a Sustainable Milk Product with Integrated Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in China
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Crowd-funding Intention and Willingness-to-pay for a Sustainable Milk Product with Integrated Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in China
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

In comparison with current financing mechanisms for renewable energy systems, crowd-funding financing mechanism offers a new potential source of financing with recent use of social media. Crowd-funding financing mechanism can also increases the social supports for renewable energy systems as users and investors turn to be more actively engaged in energy systems. As a new potential source of financing, crowd-funding mechanism has different forms, including donation, lending, equity and product reward approaches. In this paper, discrete choice model was used to explore whether crowd-funding financing with a novel sociotechnical product reward practice, has the attractions for potential customers to pay for a more sustainable milk product with distributed photovoltaic (PV) system. We empirically investigated the product reward crowd funding with the specific integrated photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system in dairy milk production in China. 48 in-depth interviews were adopted for qualitative analysis of determinants of customer milk purchase decision. The ordered probit regression was employed with 357 online surveys to systematically estimate the purchase intention and willingness to pay value for the online-crowd-funding sustainable milk. Customer behaviours, environmental consciousness, and the individual socio-demographic factors were tested as potential explanatory variables. In the survey and depth interview samples, we found interviewees as potential customers showed strong purchase intentions to the crowd funding dairy milk for noticing milk quality and nutritious improvement, emission reduction and environmental benefits by the integrated PVWP system. In our findings of the regression results, the potential customers with higher income-level, at the age with young children or planning to have children were found with higher willingness to pay than other customers for crowd funding the sustainable dairy milk. The familiarity and popularity with online shopping and pre-sale purchase in China made customers more open and active towards pre-pay and crowd-funding mechanism.

Emneord
Crowd funding mechanism, Discrete choice model, Willingness to pay, Photovoltaic water pumping in China, Sustainable milk
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-235955 (URN)
Merknad

QC 20181011

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-10 Laget: 2018-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-11bibliografisk kontrollert

Open Access i DiVA

Thesis Chi Zhang(6493 kB)10 nedlastinger
Filinformasjon
Fil FULLTEXT03.pdfFilstørrelse 6493 kBChecksum SHA-512
e6f7d7dc484b9d6637a25e14cf2214ab446ec21dc3d78468267de75398946bf991780f6236b018f333dad21007ec8f3ab7a7cd4d2ed6b01760a7dceec0d44929
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Søk i DiVA

Av forfatter/redaktør
Zhang, Chi
Av organisasjonen

Søk utenfor DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Totalt: 10 nedlastinger
Antall nedlastinger er summen av alle nedlastinger av alle fulltekster. Det kan for eksempel være tidligere versjoner som er ikke lenger tilgjengelige

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric

isbn
urn-nbn
Totalt: 343 treff
RefereraExporteraLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf