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Assessing the SCAN functional for itinerant electron ferromagnets
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7563-1494
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
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2018 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 9, article id 094413Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Density functional theory is a standard model for condensed-matter theory and computational material science. The accuracy of density functional theory is limited by the accuracy of the employed approximation to the exchange-correlation functional. Recently, the so-called strongly constrained appropriately normed (SCAN) [Sun, Ruzsinszky, and Perdew, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 036402 (2015)] functional has received a lot of attention due to promising results for covalent, metallic, ionic, as well as hydrogen- and van der Waals-bonded systems alike. In this work, we focus on assessing the performance of the SCAN functional for itinerant magnets by calculating basic structural and magnetic properties of the transition metals Fe, Co, and Ni. We find that although structural properties of bcc-Fe seem to be in good agreement with experiment, SCAN performs worse than standard local and semilocal functionals for fcc-Ni and hcp-Co. In all three cases, the magnetic moment is significantly overestimated by SCAN, and the 3d states are shifted to lower energies, as compared to experiments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC , 2018. Vol. 98, no 9, article id 094413
National Category
Theoretical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151640DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.98.094413ISI: 000444348500004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-151640DiVA, id: diva2:1251748
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC); Swedish Research Council (VR) through the International Career Grant [20146336]; Marie Sklodowska CurieActions, Cofund, Project [INCA 600398]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) through the Future Research Leaders 6 program; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; competence center FunMat-II - Vinnova [201605156]; Russian Science Foundation [18-12-00492]

Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2020-03-17
In thesis
1. Structural and magnetic disorder in crystalline materials: a first principles study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural and magnetic disorder in crystalline materials: a first principles study
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Disorder in crystalline materials can take different forms and originate from different sources. In particular, temperature introduces disorder in any kind of material. This can be observed as the appearance of vacant lattice sites in an otherwise perfect crystal, or as a random distribution of different elements on the same lattice in an alloy; at the same time, if the material is magnetic, temperature induces disorder also on the magnetic degrees of freedom. In this thesis, different levels of disorder associated to structure and magnetism are investigated by means of density functional theory and thermodynamic models.

I start with diffusion of Ti vacancies in TiN, which is studied by means of nonequilibrium ab initio molecular dynamics using the color diffusion algorithm at different temperatures. The result is an Arrhenius behavior of Ti vacancy jump rates.

A method to perform structural relaxations in magnetic materials in their hightemperature paramagnetic phase is then developed based on the disordered local moments approach in order to study vacancies, interstitial atoms, and combinations of defects in paramagnetic bcc Fe and B1 CrN, as well as the mixing enthalpy of bcc Fe1−xCrx random alloys. A correction to the energetics of every system due to the relaxation in the disordered magnetic state is observed in all cases.

Not related to temperature and disorder, but very important for an accurate description of magnetic materials, is the choice of the exchange and correlation functional to be employed in the first principles calculations. We have investigated the performance of a recently developed meta-GGA functional, the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) functional, in comparison with the more commonly used LDA and PBE on the ferromagnetic elemental solids bcc Fe, fcc Ni, and hcp Co, and SCAN it is found to give negligible improvements, if not a worsening, in the description of these materials.

Finally, the coupling between vibrational and magnetic degrees of freedom is discussed by reviewing the literature and proposing an investigation of the influence of vibrations on longitudinal spin fluctuations. These excitations are here studied by means of thermodynamic models based on Landau expansion of the energy in even powers of the magnitude of the local magnetic moments. We find that vibrational and magnetic disorder alter the energy landscapes as a function of moment size also in bcc Fe, which is often considered a Heisenberg system, inducing a more itinerant electron behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1837
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156835 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-156835 (DOI)9789176850817 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-05-23, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
2. Electronic transitions and correlation effects: From pure elements to complex materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic transitions and correlation effects: From pure elements to complex materials
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Macroscopic properties of real materials, such as conductivity, magneticproperties, crystal structure parameters, etc. are closely related or evendetermined by the configuration of their electrons, characterized by electronicstructure. By changing the conditions, e.g, pressure, temperature, magnetic/electric field, chemical doping, etc. one can modify the electronic structure ofsolids and therefore induce a phase transition(s) between different electronic andmagnetic states. One famous example is a Mott metal-to-insulator phase transition,at which a material undergoes a significant, often many orders of magnitude, changeof conductivity caused by the interplay between itineracy and localization of thecarriers.

Electronic topological transitions (ETT) involvechanges in the topology of a metal's Fermi surface. This thesis investigates theeffect of such electronic transitions in various materials, ranging from pureelements to complex compounds.

To describe the interplay between electronic transitionsand properties of real materials,different state-of-the-art computational methods are used. The densityfunctional theory(DFT), as well as the DFT + U method, is used to calculatestructural properties. The validity of recently introduced exchange-correlationfunctionals, such as the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN)functional, is also assessed for magnetic elements. In order toinclude dynamical effects of electron interactions we use the DFT + dynamical meanfield theory (DFT + DMFT) method.

Experiments in hcp-Os have reported peculiarities in the ratio betweenlattice parameters at high pressure. Previous calculations have suggested these transitions maybe related to ETTs and even crossings of core levels at ultra high pressure. Inthis thesis it is shownthat the crossing of core levels is a general feature of heavy transitionmetals. Experiments have therefore been performed to look for indications ofthis transition in Ir using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In NiO, strongrepulsion between electrons leads to a Mott insulating state at ambientconditions. It has long been predicted that high pressure will lead to aninsulator-to-metal transition. This has been suggested to be accompanied by aloss of magnetic order, and a structural phase transition. In collaboration withexperimentalists we look for thistransition by investigating the X-ray absorption spectra as well as themagnetic hyperfine field. We find no evidence of a Mott transition up to 280GPa. In the Mott insulator TiPO4, application of external pressure has beensuggested to lead to a spin-Peierls transition at room temperature. Weinvestigate the dimerisation and the magnetic structure of TiPO4 at high pressure.As pressure is increased further, TiPO4 goes through a metal to insulatortransition before an eventual crystallographic phase transition. Remarkably, thenew high pressure phases are found to be insulators; the Mott insulating stateis restored.

MAX phases are layered materials that combinemetallic and ceramic properties and feature layers of M-metal and X-C or N atomsinterconnected by A-group atoms. Magnetic MAX-phases with their low dimensionalmagnetism are promising candidates for applications in e.g., spintronics.The validity of various theoretical approaches are discussed in connection tothe magnetic MAX-phase Mn2GaC. Using DFT and DFT + DMFT we consider the hightemperature paramagnetic state, and whether the magnetic moments are formed bylocalized or itinerant electrons.

Abstract [sv]

Ett materials makroskopiska egenskaper, såsom ledningsförmåga, magnetiska egenskaper, kristallstrukturparametrar, etc. är relaterade till, eller till och med bestämda av elektronernas konfiguration, vilken karakteriseras av elektronstrukturen. Genom att ändra förhållandena, till exempel via tryck, temperatur, magnetiska och/eller elektriska fält, dopning, etc. är det möjligt att modifiera elektronstrukturen hos ett material, och därigenom inducera fasövergångar mellan olika magnetiska och elektron-tillstånd. Mott metall-till-isolator övergången är ett berömt exempel på en fasövergång, då ett material genomgår en omfattande, ofta flera tiopotenser, förändring i ledningsförmåga, orsakad av samspelet mellan ambulerande och lokaliserade laddningsbärare.

Vid en elektronisk-topologisk övergång (eng. electronic topological transition, ETT) sker förändringar i elektronernas energifördelning vilket modifierar materialets Fermi-yta. I den här avhandlingen undersöks dylika övergångar i olika material, från rena grundämnen till komplicerade föreningar.

Flera olika toppmoderna beräkningsmetoder används för att redogöra för samspelet mellan elektroniska fasövergångar och egenskaper hos riktiga material. Täthetsfunktionalterori (eng. density functional theory, DFT), samt DFT + U, har används för att beräkna strukturella egenskaper. Lämplighetsgraden i att använda nyligen publicerade exchangecorrelation- funktionaler, såsom SCAN (eng. strongly constrained and appropriately normed), för att beskriva magnetiska grundämnen undersöks även. För att inkludera dynamiska elektronkorrelationer använder vi metoden DFT + dynamisk medelfältteori (eng. dynamical mean field theory, DMFT).

Experiment utförda på hcp-Os vid högt tryck visar underliga hopp i kvoten mellan gitterparametrar. Tidigare beräkningar har indikerat att dessa övergångar kan vara relaterade till elektronisk-topologiska övergångar och korsande av kärntillstånd. I den här avhandlingen visas också att korsning av kärntillstånden är en generell egenskap hos tunga övergångsmetaller. Därför utförs röntgenabsorptionsexperiment på Ir för att leta efter tecken på denna typ av övergång. Övergångsmetalloxiden NiO har sedan länge förutspåtts genomgå en isolator till metall Mott-övergång. Det har föreslagits att denna övergång sker vid höga tryck i samband med att materialets magnetiska ordning försvinner och en strukturell övergång sker. I samarbete med experimentalister letar vi efter denna övergång genom att studera röntgenabsorptionsspektra och det magnetiska hyperfina fältet. Vi ser inga indikationer på en Mott-övegång, upp till ett tryck på 280 GPa. Det har föreslagits att Mott-isolatorn TiPO4 genomgår en så kallad spin-Peierls-övergång, vid rumstemperatur, när tryck appliceras. Vi undersöker dimeriseringen och den magnetiska strukturen i TiPO4 som funktion av tryck. Vid höga tryck genomgår TiPO4 ytterligare övergångar, från en isolerande till en metallisk fas för att slutligen genomgå en strukturell övergång. De nya högtrycksfaserna visar sig anmärkningsvärt vara Mott-isolatorer.

MAX-faser är en grupp material med specifik kristallstruktur, som kombinerar egenskaper från keramiska material och metaller. En MAX-fas består av lager av M –metall-atomer – och X – kol- eller kväveatomer – vilka sammanbinds av atomer från grupp A. Magnetiska MAX-faser som visar magnetiska egenskaper, liknande de för lågdimensionella material, är lovande kandidater för applikation inom exempelvis spinntronik. Den här avhandlingen undersöker lämplighetsgraden i att använda diverse teoretiska metoder för att beskriva magnetiska MAX-faser. Med hjälp av DFT och DFT + DMFT undersöker vi den paramagnetiska högtemperaturfasen och huruvida de magnetiska momenten bildas av lokaliserade eller ambulerande elektroner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2020. p. 70
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 2053
Keywords
Electronic transition, solid state physics, condensed matter physics, correlation effects
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164113 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-164113 (DOI)9789179298852 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-04-24, Planck, F Building, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-03-17 Created: 2020-03-17 Last updated: 2020-03-17Bibliographically approved

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