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Energy evaluation of residential buildings: Performance gap analysis incorporating uncertainties in the evaluation methods
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1657-7376
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
2018 (English)In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 725-737Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Calculation and measurement-based energy performance evaluations of the same building often provide different results. This difference is referred as "the performance gap". However, a large performance gap may not necessarily mean that there are flaws in the building or deviations from the intended design. The causes for the performance gap can be analysed by calibrating the simulation model to measured data. In this paper, an approach is introduced for verifying compliance with energy performance criteria of residential buildings. The approach is based on a performance gap analysis that takes the uncertainties in the energy evaluation methods into consideration. The scope is to verify building energy performance through simulation and analysis of measured data, identifying any performance gap due to deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building based on performance gap analysis. In the approach, a simulation model is calibrated to match the heat loss coefficient of the building envelope [kWh/K] instead of the measured energy. The introduced approach is illustrated using a single-family residential building. The heat loss coefficient was found useful towards identifying any deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building. The case study indicated that the method uncertainty was important to consider in the performance gap analysis and that the proposed approach is applicable even when the performance gap appears to be non-existing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tsinghua University Press, 2018. Vol. 11, no 4, p. 725-737
Keywords [en]
performance gap, energy signature, calibration, simulation, design criteria
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-150666DOI: 10.1007/s12273-018-0439-7ISI: 000435421700008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85048691979OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-150666DiVA, id: diva2:1240096
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form with title A methodology to investigate the building energy performance gap

Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Achieving building energy performance: requirements and evaluation methods for residential buildings in Sweden, Norway, and Finland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Achieving building energy performance: requirements and evaluation methods for residential buildings in Sweden, Norway, and Finland
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Building energy performance has always been important in the cold climate of Sweden, Norway and Finland. To meet the goal that all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings by 2020, set in the EU directive 2010/31/EU [1] on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD recast), the building sector in Europe now faces a transition towards buildings with improved energy performance. In such a transition, a discussion is needed about the objective of the improvement – why, or to what end, the building energy performance should be improved. The objective of improving building energy performance is often a political decision, but scientific research can contribute with knowledge on how the objectives can be achieved.

This thesis addresses how the indicators used in the requirements used to achieve building energy performance in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, and the methods used to evaluate these requirements, reflect building energy performance. It also addresses difficulties in achieving comparable and verifiable indicators in evaluations of building energy performance. The research objective has two parts: to review, compare, and discuss (i) requirements and (ii) evaluation methods used to achieve energy performance of residential buildings in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The work in this thesis includes reviews of the requirements used in national building codes and passive house criteria to achieve building energy performance, of methods used to evaluate compliance with such requirements, and of methods used specifically to evaluate the indicator Envelope Air Tightness.

The results show that different sets of indicators are used to achieve building energy performance in the studied building codes and passive house criteria. The methods used to evaluate compliance with requirements used to achieve building energy performance are also different, but calculation methods are generally more often used than measurement methods. The calculation- and measurement methods used are often simple. A methodology to analyze the deviation between predictions- and measurements of building energy performance (the performance gap) was developed, to investigate the effects of different evaluation methods on different indicators used to achieve building energy performance. The methodology was tested in a case-study. This study indicated that the choice of method affects which parts of the performance gap reflected in the indicators Supplied Energy (see Terminology), Net Energy (see Terminology), and Overall U-value. Among the reviewed methods to evaluate air tightness, the Fan/Blower Door Pressurization is well known and preferred by professionals in the field. The results in this thesis may be useful when choosing indicators and evaluation methods to achieve different objectives of improving building energy performance and in the quest towards comparable and verifiable indicators used to achieve building energy performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2015. p. 50
Keywords
building codes, energy performance, evaluation methods, air tightness
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Building Technologies Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-103749 (URN)978-91-7601-297-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-06-04, MC 314, Umeå university, 901 87 Umeå, 16:33 (English)
Supervisors
Projects
Increasing Energy Efficiency in Buildings (IEEB)Sustainable Buildings for the High North (SBHN)
Available from: 2015-08-25 Created: 2015-05-28 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved

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