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Multiplexed analysis of molecular and elemental ions using nanowire transistor sensors
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
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2018 (English)In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 270, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An integrated sensor chip with silicon nanowire ion-sensitive field-effect transistors for simultaneous and selective detection of both molecular and elemental ions in a single sample solution is demonstrated. The sensing selectivity is realized by functionalizing the sensor surface with tailor-made mixed-matrix membranes (MMM) incorporated with specific ionophores for the target ions. A biomimetic container molecule, named metal-organic supercontainer (MOSC), is selected as the ionophore for detection of methylene blue (MB+), a molecular ion, while a commercially available Na-ionophore is used for Na+, an elemental ion. The sensors show a near-Nernstian response with 56.4 ± 1.8 mV/dec down to a concentration limit of ∌1 ΌM for MB+ and 57.9 ± 0.7 mV/dec down to ∌60 ΌM for Na+, both with excellent reproducibility. Extensive control experiments on the MB+ sensor lead to identification of the critical role of the MOSC molecules in achieving a stable and reproducible potentiometric response. Moreover, the MB+-specific sensor shows remarkable selectivity against common interfering elemental ions in physiological samples, e.g., H+, Na+, and K+. Although the Na+-specific sensor is currently characterized by insufficient immunity to the interference by MB+, the root cause is identified and remedies generally applicable for hydrophobic molecular ions are discussed. River water experiments are also conducted to prove the efficacy of our sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 270, p. 89-96
Keywords [en]
Elemental ion, ISFET, Metal-organic supercontainer, Molecular ion, Multiplex detection, Silicon nanowire FET
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351716DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2018.05.018ISI: 000434011500011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-351716DiVA, id: diva2:1210869
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SSF ICA 12-0047;FFL15-0174Swedish Research Council, VR 2014-5588Göran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of Technology, GG 1459BCarl Tryggers foundation , CTS14-527
Note

Xi Chen and Qitao Hu contributed equally to this work

Available from: 2018-05-29 Created: 2018-05-29 Last updated: 2019-04-03Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Devices as Low-Noise Sensors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon Nanowire Field-Effect Devices as Low-Noise Sensors
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the past decades, silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNWFETs) have been explored for label-free, highly sensitive, and real-time detections of chemical and biological species. The SiNWFETs are anticipated for sensing analyte at ultralow concentrations, even at single-molecule level, owing to their significantly improved charge sensitivity over large-area FETs. In a SiNWFET sensor, a change in electrical potential associated with biomolecular interactions in close proximity to the SiNW gate terminal can effectively control the underlying channel and modulate the drain-to-source current (IDS) of the SiNWFET. A readout signal is therefore generated. This signal is primarily determined by the surface properties of the sensing layer on the gate terminal, with sensitivity close up to the Nernstian limit widely demonstrated. To achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), it is essential for the SiNWFETs to possess low noise of which intrinsic device noise is one of the major components. In metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-type FETs, the intrinsic noise mainly results from carrier trapping/detrapping at the gate oxide/semiconductor interface and it is inversely proportional to the device area.

This thesis presents a comprehensive study on design, fabrication, and noise reduction of SiNWFET-based sensors on silicon-on-oxide (SOI) substrate. A novel Schottky junction gated SiNWFET (SJGFET) is designed and experimentally demonstrated for low noise applications. Firstly, a robust process employing photo- and electron-beam mixed-lithography was developed to reliably produce sub-10 nm SiNW structures for SiNWFET fabrication. For a proof-of-concept demonstration, MOS-type SiNWFET sensors were fabricated and applied for multiplexed ion detection using ionophore-doped mixed-matrix membranes as sensing layers. To address the fundamental noise issue of the MOS-type SiNWFETs, SJGFETs were fabricated with a Schottky (PtSi/silicon) junction gate on the top surface of the SiNW channel, replacing the noisy gate oxide/silicon interface in the MOS-type SiNWFETs. The resultant SJGFETs exhibited a close-to-ideal gate coupling efficiency (60 mV/dec) and significantly reduced device noise compared to reference MOS-type SiNWFETs. Further optimization was performed by implementing a three-dimensional Schottky junction gate wrapping both top surface and two sidewalls of the SiNW channel. The tri-gate SJGFETs with optimized geometry exhibited significantly enhanced electrostatic control over the channel, thereby confined IDS in the SiNW bulk, which greatly improved the device noise immunity to the traps at bottom buried oxide/silicon interface. Finally, a lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) was also designed and fabricated on a SOI substrate aiming for immediate sensor current amplification. Integrating SJGFETs with LBJTs is expected to significantly suppress environmental interference and improve the overall SNR especially under low sensor current situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 69
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1794
Keywords
Silicon nanowire, field-effect transistor, Schottky junction gate, low frequency noise, ion sensor
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381049 (URN)978-91-513-0625-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-27, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-02 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-06-17

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Publisher's full texthttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925400518309195

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