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Interactions between battery and power electronics in an electric vehicle drivetrain
KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-0108-1872
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The electric machine and power electronics in electric and hybrid electric vehicles inevitably cause AC harmonics on the vehicle's DC-link. These harmonics can be partially filtered out by large capacitors, which today are overdimensioned in order to protect the vehicle's battery pack. This is done as a precaution, since it is not known whether ripple-current has any harmful effect on Li-ion  cells.

We have measured and analyzed the ripple-current present in a hybrid electric bus, and found that a majority of the power was carried by frequencies in the range 100~Hz to 1~kHz. The single most energetic harmonic in this particular vehicle is believed to have been caused  by a misaligned resolver in the motor.

We have also designed and built an advanced experimental set-up in order to study the effect of ripple-current on Li-ion cells in the lab. The set-up can cycle up to 16 cells simultaneously, with currents of up to 50~A including a superimposed AC signal with a frequency of up to 2~kHz. The cells' temperatures are controlled by means of a climate chamber. The set-up also includes a sophisticated safety system which automatically acts to prevent dangerous situations before they arise.

Using this set-up we tested whether superimposing AC with a specific frequency improves the charging performance of Li-ion cells. Statistical analysis found no improvement over regular DC cycling, and a physics-based model explains the experimental findings.

We have also investigated whether ripple-current accelerates the aging of Li-ion cells. Twelve cells were either calendar or cycle  aged for one year, with some cells being exposed to superimposed AC with a frequency of 1~Hz, 100~Hz, or 1~kHz. No effect was observed on any of capacity fade, power fade, or aging mechanism.

Finally we also tested whether it is possible to heat Li-ion cells from low temperatures using only AC. We propose a method for AC heating of Li-ion cells, and open the discussion for generalizing the technique to larger battery packs.

In conclusion, ripple-current has negligible effect on Li-ion cells, except for heating them slightly.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , s. 74
Serie
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:27
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Kemiteknik; Elektro- och systemteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228030ISBN: 978-91-7729-837-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-228030DiVA, id: diva2:1206679
Disputas
2018-06-15, E2, E-huset, huvudbyggnaden, våningsplan 3, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Energy Agency
Merknad

QC 20180518

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-18 Laget: 2018-05-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Measurements and analysis of battery harmonic currents in a commercial hybrid vehicle
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: 2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, s. 45-50Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the harmonic content of the battery current in a commercial hybrid vehicle (bus) is measured and analyzed for a number of different driving situations. It is found that the most prominent harmonic reaches peak magnitudes that can be higher than 10% of the maximum dc-current level with a maximum frequency less than 150 Hz. Further, it is found that this harmonic can be approximated using a fitted, simple analytical expression with reasonable agreement for all driving situations considered.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2017
Emneord
DC-link, Harmonic currents, Hybrid vehicles, Lithium-ion batteries, Permanent-magnet synchronous machine, Ripple, Voltage source inverter, Commercial vehicles, Electric batteries, Electric inverters, Electric utilities, Harmonic analysis, Lithium compounds, Permanent magnets, Secondary batteries, Vehicles, DC links, Permanent magnet synchronous machines
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-216277 (URN)10.1109/ITEC.2017.7993245 (DOI)000427121300009 ()2-s2.0-85028594346 (Scopus ID)9781509039043 (ISBN)
Konferanse
2017 IEEE Transportation and Electrification Conference and Expo, ITEC 2017, 22 June 2017 through 24 June 2017
Merknad

QC 20171213

Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-12-13 Laget: 2017-12-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
2. An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-ion Batteries Cells
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-ion Batteries Cells
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Alternating current, aging, battery testing, electric vehicles, GITT, HPPC, life cycle, lithium-ion batteries, ripple, SOC
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228024 (URN)
Merknad

QC 20180518

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-16 Laget: 2018-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries
Vise andre…
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, nr 6, s. 4750-4757Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
IEEE Press, 2018
Emneord
Fast charging, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, sinusoidal ripple charging
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Kemiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223315 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2017.2772160 (DOI)000425618900031 ()2-s2.0-85034238750 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Energy Agency
Merknad

QC 20180222

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-02-16 Laget: 2018-02-16 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-17bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Aging effects of AC harmonics on lithium-ion cells
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
lithium-ion, ripple-current, harmonics, aging
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228029 (URN)
Merknad

QC 20180518

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-16 Laget: 2018-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert
5. A Control Method for Battery Heating Using Alternating Current
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Control Method for Battery Heating Using Alternating Current
Vise andre…
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Current control, electric model, injection of alternate current, internal heat, lithium-ion batteries, packaging, ripple, temperature control, thermal model
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228027 (URN)
Merknad

QC 20180518

Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-05-16 Laget: 2018-05-16 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-18bibliografisk kontrollert

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