Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Deaths caused by injury among people of working age (18-64) are decreasing, while those among older people (64+) are increasing
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4075-4600
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Show others and affiliations
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, E-ISSN 1863-9941, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Injury is an important cause of death in all age groups worldwide, and contributes to many losses of human and economic resources. Currently, we know a few data about mortality from injury, particularly among the working population. The aim of the present study was to examine death from injury over a period of 14 years (1999-2012) using the Swedish Cause of Death Registry (CDR) and the National Patient Registry, which have complete national coverage.

METHOD: CDR was used to identify injury-related deaths among adults (18 years or over) during the years 1999-2012. ICD-10 diagnoses from V01 to X39 were included. The significance of changes over time was analyzed by linear regression.

RESULTS: The incidence of prehospital death decreased significantly (coefficient -0.22, r (2) = 0.30; p = 0.041) during the study period, while that of deaths in hospital increased significantly (coefficient 0.20, r (2) = 0.75; p < 0.001). Mortality/100,000 person-years in the working age group (18-64 years) decreased significantly (coefficient -0.40, r (2) = 0.37; p = 0.020), mainly as a result of decrease in traffic-related deaths (coefficient -0.34, r (2) = 0.85; p < 0.001). The incidence of deaths from injury among elderly (65 years and older) patients increased because of the increase in falls (coefficient 1.71, r (2) = 0.84; p < 0.001) and poisoning (coefficient 0.13, r (2) = 0.69; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of injury in Sweden has changed during recent years in that mortality from injury has declined in the working age group and increased among those people 64 years old and over.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018. Vol. 44, no 4, p. 589-596
Keywords [en]
Elderly, Injury, Mortality, Prehospital, Trauma, Working age
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142763DOI: 10.1007/s00068-017-0827-1ISI: 000440981100014PubMedID: 28825159Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85027836250OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-142763DiVA, id: diva2:1154338
Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Injury mortality in Sweden; changes over time and the effect of age and injury mechanism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Injury mortality in Sweden; changes over time and the effect of age and injury mechanism
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Injuries are one of the most common causes of death in the world. Varying types of injuries dominate in different parts of the world, which also have separate influences mortality. In Scandinavia blunt injuries dominates and the majority of those who die do so pre hospital. Over time different injury pattern may vary and by analyzing this we can assess when, where and how preventive work can be reinforced. The aim of this thesis was to study injury epidemiology in Sweden and assess the contribution of different injury patters on mortality.

Method: We used the Swedish cause of death and the national patient registries which have a complete national coverage. ICISS was calculated (based on ICD-10) in the in hospital population. We have chosen to do this investigation with a broad perspective using the term injury, which includes trauma but also other diagnoses like suffocation and drowning.

Results: During the study period (1999-2012) the number of deaths because of injury was 1213, 25 388, and 18 332 among children, working age and elderly, respectively. Mortality declined in the children and in the working age but inclined in the elderly. Mortality increased with each age group except between the ages of 15–25 and 26–35 years. One thousand two hundred sixty four (97%) of those who died because of penetrating trauma (sharp objects and firearms) were killed by intentional trauma (assault and intentional self-harm). One thousand and seventeen (83%) of the children died prehospital. In the working age 22 211 (80%) of 25 388 died pre hospital. Nine thousand six hundred and eighteen (53%) of 18 332 of the elderly died prehospital. During 2001- 2011 the risk adjusted in hospital mortality decreased in traffic and assault but not in fall related injuries.

Discussion: Largely, the anticipated injury mortality picture was found, with blunt injuries (traffic accidents) dominating in the working age and falls in elderly. Further a significant portion of the deaths occurred pre hospital. The intentional injuries are dominated by intentional selfharm. The decrease in child injury mortality is notable as Sweden already has one of the lowest incidences in child injury mortality in the world. The decrease in injury mortality in the working age also implies that preventive work has had an effect. The incline in injury mortality in elderly on the other hand needs to be further studied. Areas of particular importance for future preventive work is the incline in injury mortality in elderly and intentional injuries among children. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. p. 49
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1602
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142762 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-142762 (DOI)9789176854112 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-01, Runstenen, Vrinnevisjukhuset, Norrköping, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
2. Risk-Adjustment for Swedish In-Hospital Trauma Mortality using International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS): issues with description and methods
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk-Adjustment for Swedish In-Hospital Trauma Mortality using International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS): issues with description and methods
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Different methods have been used to describe the epidemiology of trauma with varying results. Crude mortality outcome data differ significantly from risk-adjusted information. A previous standard method for risk-adjustment in trauma was the Injury Severity Score (ISS), although it has several shortcomings. In this thesis I examine Swedish injury statistics from an epidemiological perspective using crude and risk-adjusted mortality, and to adjust for injury I used the International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS). The groups of most lethal injuries (fall, traffic, and assault) were examined separately using an ICISS mortality prediction model that focused particularly on the effects on the prediction of mortality by adding coexisting conditions (comorbidity) to it. Differences in mortality between the sexes and changes over time were tested separately.

Material and Methods

Data from all patients with ICD-10 based diagnoses of injury (ICD-10: V01 to Y36) in the Swedish National Patient Registry and Cause of Death Registry were collected from 1999 to 2012 and used for assessment of mortality and comorbidity. A subgroup (patients in hospital) from 2001-2011 were selected as the study group. Their injuries were in the subgroups of falls, traffic, and assaults, and are the focus of this thesis. Mortality within 30 days of injury was used as the endpoint. The severity of injury was adjusted for using the ICISS, which was first described by Osler et al. The model was also adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities.

Results

The study group comprised 815 846 patients (of whom 17 721 died). There was a decrease over time in injuries caused by falls and traffic (coefficient -4.71, p=0.047 and coefficient -5.37, p<0.001), whereas there was no change in assault-related injuries/100 000 inhabitants. The risk-adjusted 30-day mortality showed a decrease in injuries related to traffic and assault (OR 0.95, p<0.001 and OR 0.93, p=0.022) whereas for falls it remained unchanged. There was also a risk-adjusted survival benefit for women, which increased with increasing age. Adjusting for comorbidities made the prediction of 30-day mortality by the ICISS model better (accuracy, calibration, and discrimination). However, most of this effect was found to be the result of the other characteristics of the fall related injury group (they were older, and had more coexisting conditions).

Conclusion

During a 10-year period, there has been a significant overall decrease in crude as well as risk-adjusted mortality for these three injury groups combined. Within these groups there is a clear, risk-adjusted, female survival advantage. The ICISS model for the prediction of mortality improves when comorbidities are added, but this effect is minor and seen mainly among the injuries caused by falls, where comorbidity is significant. The ICISS method was a valuable adjunct in the investigation of data on Swedish mortality after injury that has been gathered from health care registry data.

Abstract [sv]

Introduktion

Olika metoder har använts för att beskriva trauma, alla med varierande resultat. Riskjusterad respektive icke-justerad data skiljer sig markant åt. En metod som oftast används för riskjustering i traumasammanhang är Injury Severity Score (ISS) som tyvärr är belastad med ett antal praktiska tillkortakommande. I denna avhandling har jag undersökt de skadade i Sverige från ett epidemiologiskt perspektiv med både justerad och icke riskjusterad mortalitet. För att kunna justera för skadan använde jag International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS). De dödligaste skademekanismerna i Sverige (fall, trafik och övergrepp) analyserades för sig med hjälp av en mortalitetsjusterad modell baserad på ICISS som fokuserade särskilt på mortalitetseffekterna av att lägga till tidigare sjukdomar (komorbiditet) i modellen. Skillnader i dödlighet mellan de olika könen samt förändringar över tid undersöktes.

Material och Metod

Information om alla patienter med en skadekod från ICD-10 systemet (ICD10: V01-Y36) i slutenvårdsregistret eller dödsorsaksregistrets under åren 1999–2012 samlades in för att användas för att kunna utvärdera mortalitet och komorbiditet. En undergrupp av sjukhusinlagda patienter från 2001–2011 valdes sedan som primär studiegrupp. De som i denna grupp hade drabbats av fall-, trafik- eller övergrepps-relaterade skador är det denna avhandling fokuserar på. Som mätpunkt (endpoint) användes avliden inom 30 dagar från skadan. Skadans allvarlighetsgrad bedömdes med ICISS som Osler var först att beskriva. Modellen justerades även för ålder, kön och komorbiditet.

Resultat

Studiegruppen innehöll 815 846 patienter (av vilka 17 721 avled). I gruppen med falloch trafik-relaterade skador var det en ren minskning över studietiden (koefficienten -4,71 med ett p=0,047 och med en koefficient på -5,37 med ett p <0,001), medans i övergreppsrelaterade skador kunde jag inte hitta någon minskning per 100 000 invånare. Den riskjusterade 30-dagars dödligheten hade en minskning i trafik- och övergreppsrelaterade skador (OR 0,95 med ett p <0,001 respektive OR 0,93 med ett p=0,022) men ingen minskning i fallrelaterade skador sågs. Riskjusterat gick det också att hitta en överlevnadsfördel för kvinnor, vilken ökade med ålder. När jag justerade för komorbiditeter blev prediktionsmodellen för ICISS med 30-dagars dödlighet bättre (detta gällde både precision, kalibrering och diskriminering). Det bör dock nämnas att det mesta av förbättringen vid eftergranskning var beroende på fall gruppens demografi (högre ålder och mer komorbiditeter).

Konklusion

Under denna tio-årsperiod har dödligheten minskat för dessa grupper, både riskjusterat och icke justerat. Inom dessa grupper finns en tydlig riskjusterad överlevnadsfördel för kvinnor. ICISS-modellen blir bättre på att förutspå 30-dagars dödlighet när man lägger till komorbiditet, men effekten är att betrakta som en mindre effekt och ses tydligast i fallrelaterade skador (där ålder och komorbiditet är högre). Metoden med ICISS är en värdefull metod för att undersöka stora datamaterial och dödlighet i stora grupper i Sverige. Detta kan göras med redan insamlade data i sjukvårdsregistren.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 77
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1660
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Anesthesiology and Intensive Care
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154415 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-154415 (DOI)9789176851401 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-15, Granitsalen, Campus US, Linköping, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Minor corrections are made in the electronic version of the thesis. / Mindre korreigeringar är gjorda i den elektroniska versionen av avhandlingen.

Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-04-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(888 kB)66 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 888 kBChecksum SHA-512
67d2bbca3d8b62e751aa159c863a9e30d44bdc02b61a6d7b93bf332e25f293cc8be4d36790fa5012d286375d7047fb8ebeb71d0caa0536479d07b5d69922591d
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMedScopus

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bäckström, DeniseLarsen, RobertSteinvall, IngridFredrikson, MatsSjöberg, Folke
By organisation
Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and OncologyFaculty of Medicine and Health SciencesDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in NorrköpingDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in LinköpingDepartment of Hand and Plastic SurgeryDivision of Neuro and Inflammation Science
In the same journal
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 66 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 341 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf