CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Analysis and control of magnetic forces in synchronous machines
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4265-6545
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In a synchronous machine, radial, tangential, and axial forces are generated. In this thesis, three different technologies to control them are proposed. The first one, involves the utilization of the radial forces that arise between the rotor and the stator. This is achieved by segmenting the rotor field winding into groups of poles and controlling their corresponding magnetization individually. This technology is particularly useful to achieve magnetic balance and to create controllable radial forces. The second technology, involves the control of the rotor field in order to influence the tangential forces that produce torque. This is achieved by inverting the rotor field winding polarity with respect to the stator field. With this technique, breaking and accelerating torques can be created. It is particularly useful to start a synchronous machine. Finally, the application of axial forces with a magnetic thrust bearing is discussed. The main benefits of this technology are higher efficiency and increased reliability.

The work presented in this thesis was carried out within the Division of Electricity in the Department of Engineering Sciences at Uppsala University. It is based on original research supported by analytical calculations, computational simulations and extensive experimental work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. , p. 84
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1542
Keywords [en]
eccentricity, electromagnetics, electromagnetic forces, excitation, magnetic fields, magnetic forces, magnetic thrust bearing, rotor drive, split rotor, starting, synchronous generators, synchronous machines, synchronous motors, unbalanced magnetic pull
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328086ISBN: 978-91-513-0036-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-328086DiVA, id: diva2:1133828
Public defence
2017-10-06, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-10-17
List of papers
1. Arrangement for supporting a rotatable body
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arrangement for supporting a rotatable body
2016 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328389 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-24
2. Fail-safe system for discharging a magnetic thrust bearing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fail-safe system for discharging a magnetic thrust bearing
2016 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328390 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2017-08-24
3. Comparison of Thyristor Rectifier Configurations for a Six-Phase Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Thyristor Rectifier Configurations for a Six-Phase Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 968-976Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent technological developments have caused a renewed interest in the brushless excitation system. With the application of wireless communication, the conventional diode bridge has been replaced with fully controllable thyristors on the shaft. It offers the same dynamic performance as the conventional static excitation system. The thyristor bridge of the conventional three-phase exciter needs to be controlled with a high firing angle in normal operation in order to fulfill a requirement of both a high ceiling voltage and a high ceiling current. A high firing angle causes high torque ripple to be absorbed by the exciter stator and a low power factor results in a low utilization of the designed exciter. In this contribution, we present a strategy that solves this problem by looking into combinations of thyristor configurations of a double-star six-phase connection of the exciter. Experimental results are used to verify the circuit models implemented for this investigation. A hybrid-mode 12-pulse thyristor bridge configuration seems to be a good solution for implementations in commercial apparatus. An additional switch interconnects two separate thyristor bridges from parallel- to series connection at the rectifier output, and utilizes the advantages of both topologies.

Keywords
Bridge circuits, Generators, Shafts, Thyristors, Topology, Torque, Windings, 12-pulse thyristor rectifiers, Fast-response exciters, active rectification, brushless exciters, hybrid-mode operation, multiphase machines, outer-pole PM machines, rotating exciters, synchronous generators
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328391 (URN)10.1109/TIE.2017.2726963 (DOI)000418415200002 ()
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
4. Evaluation of different power electronic interfaces for control of a rotating brushless PM exciter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of different power electronic interfaces for control of a rotating brushless PM exciter
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Proceedings Of The IECON 2016 - 42nd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, IEEE, 2016, p. 1924-1929Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

his paper investigates the performance of different power electronic interfaces for a rotating brushless permanent magnet exciter, designed for a synchronous generator test setup. A passive rotating diode bridge is commonly used as the rotating interface on conventional brushless excitation systems. Those systems are known to be slow dynamically, since they cannot control the generator field voltage directly. Including active switching components on the rotating shaft, like thyristors or transistors, brushless excitation systems can be comparable to static excitation systems. Brushless excitation systems has the benefit of less regular maintenance. With permanent magnets on the stator of the designed exciter, the excitation system improves its field forcing capability. Results show that modern power electronic interfaces utilize the exciter machine optimally, increase the power factor, reduce the torque pulsations, maintain the available field winding ceiling voltage and improve the field winding controllability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2016
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328394 (URN)000399031202033 ()978-1-5090-3474-1 (ISBN)
Conference
42nd annual conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Florence, October 27-27, 2016
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
5. Testing of Active Rectification Topologies on a Six-Phase Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing of Active Rectification Topologies on a Six-Phase Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter
Show others...
2018 (English)In: IEEE transactions on energy conversion, ISSN 0885-8969, E-ISSN 1558-0059, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The static exciter is dominating among large grid-connected generators due to the weak dynamic performance of conventional brushless exciters. In this paper, a six-phase outer pole permanent magnet rotating brushless exciter is evaluated with different active rectification topologies. Both thyristor-based and chopper-based topologies are considered. A fast-response brushless excitation system is obtained by replacing the conventional rotating diode bridge rectifier with the proposed active rectification topologies on the shaft. The given two-stage system generates its own excitation power directly from the shaft, contrary to static exciters. The selection of an appropriate rectification topology could minimize the rotor armature phase currents for a given generator field current. The objective is a high power factor and a high utilization of the exciter machine. An optimal rectification topology makes higher ceiling currents possible, improving the transient behavior of the synchronous generator. In this paper we show that six-phase topologies add complexity, but improve exciter redundancy, increase the available ceiling voltage and reduce the steady state torque ripple. Experimental results are given for validating the models implemented for the analysis.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328396 (URN)10.1109/TEC.2017.2746559 (DOI)000425623700007 ()
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
6. Optimization of Force Between Cylindrical Permanent Magnets
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Force Between Cylindrical Permanent Magnets
2014 (English)In: IEEE Magnetics Letters, ISSN 1949-307X, E-ISSN 1949-3088, Vol. 5, p. 0800404-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We calculated analytically and with the finite-element method the force between two identical coaxial cylindrical magnets for nine different magnetic materials at separations of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 mm and for height-to-diameter ratios between 0.1 and 2. For the analytical calculations, we assumed homogeneous magnetization. For the nonhomogeneous case, we used the finite-element method taking into consideration the magnetic flux density vs. field (B-H) curves of the materials. The results show that, similarly for cuboid magnets, the maximum force for a given volume of permanent-magnet material was achieved for a height-to-diameter ratio around 0.4 for homogeneously magnetized (ideal) permanent magnets. We also show that this is not always true for the nonhomogeneous cases. The resulting forces are dependent on the B-H curve of the magnets. As the B-H curves of the materials deviate from their ideal counterparts, the aspect ratio that yields maximum force increases.

Keywords
Electromagnetics, electromagnetic forces, hard magnetic materials, magnetic forces
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-246202 (URN)10.1109/LMAG.2014.2363438 (DOI)000347916300004 ()
Available from: 2015-03-03 Created: 2015-03-03 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
7. Performance tests of a permanent magnet thrust bearing for a hydropower synchronous generator test-rig
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance tests of a permanent magnet thrust bearing for a hydropower synchronous generator test-rig
2017 (English)In: ACES Journal, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 704-711Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Permanent magnets are an attractive material to be utilized in thrust bearings as they offer relatively low losses. If utilized properly, they have a long service lifetime and are virtually maintenance free. In this contribution, we communicate the results of the tests performed on a permanent magnet thrust bearing that was custom built and installed in a hydropower synchronous generator test-rig. Tridimensional finite element simulations were performed and compared with measurements of axial force. Spin down times and axial force ripple have also been measured. We found good correspondence between the measurements and the simulations.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328078 (URN)000410166500010 ()
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageStandUp
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
8. Simple Method to Calculate the Force between Thin Walled Solenoids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simple Method to Calculate the Force between Thin Walled Solenoids
2016 (English)In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research M, ISSN 1937-8726, Vol. 51, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We developed a simple method to calculate the axial force between concentric thin walled solenoids. To achieve this, the force between them was mapped as a function of their geometrical relations based on separation-to-diameter ratios. This resulted in an equation and a set of data. We used them together to calculate axial forces between two coaxial thin walled solenoids. With this method, direct evaluation of elliptical integrals was circumvented, and the forces were obtained with a simple expression. The results were validated against solutions obtained with an existing semi-analytical method and force measurements between high coercivity permanent magnets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EMW Publishing, 2016
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328077 (URN)10.2528/PIERM16062307 (DOI)000410508000009 ()
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageStandUp
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-12-15
9. Demonstration of synchronous motor start by rotor polarity inversion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of synchronous motor start by rotor polarity inversion
2017 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328081 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-11-20
10. Electromagnetic losses in synchronous machines during active compensation of unbalanced magnetic pull due to static eccentricity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic losses in synchronous machines during active compensation of unbalanced magnetic pull due to static eccentricity
2017 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328080 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-23
11. Demonstration of active compensation of unbalanced magnetic pull in synchronous machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demonstration of active compensation of unbalanced magnetic pull in synchronous machines
2017 (English)In: CIGRE Science & Engineering, Vol. 8, p. 98-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328079 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-23
12. Arrangement and method for force compensation in electrical machines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arrangement and method for force compensation in electrical machines
2016 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328083 (URN)
Patent
SE SE538502C2
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-16
13. Synchronous machine and method for operating a synchronous machine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synchronous machine and method for operating a synchronous machine
2017 (English)Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328085 (URN)
Patent
SE SE1750223-8
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-08-23
14. Magnetic thrust bearing for a hydropower unit with a Kaplan turbine
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic thrust bearing for a hydropower unit with a Kaplan turbine
2017 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328082 (URN)
Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2017-11-20
15. Design and Characterization of a Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter for a Synchronous Generator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and Characterization of a Rotating Brushless Outer Pole PM Exciter for a Synchronous Generator
Show others...
2017 (English)In: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 2016-2027Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generally, PM machines are used as PMG pre-exciters in 3-stage brushless excitations systems. This paperpresents the design, characterization and prototyping of a rotatingbrushless PM exciter used in a proposed 2-stage excitation systemfor a synchronous generator. The proposed design reduces thenumber of components compared with conventional systems.A comparison with the state-of-the-art conventional excitationsystems is given. The design of a fast-response, or high initialresponse, brushless exciter requires active rectification on therotating frame, replacing the non-controllable diode bridge. Theobjective was to construct an exciter with the capability of a50 Aoutput field current as well as a high value of the available ceilingvoltage and ceiling current. The final exciter was constructed to befitted into an in-house synchronous generator test setup. A finiteelement model of the exciter was validated with experimentalmeasurements. The exciter prototype is also compared with analternative armature design with non-overlapping single-layerconcentrated windings but with the same main dimensions.The paper includes a general design procedure suitable foroptimization of PM brushless exciters that fulfill the requirementsof their synchronous generators and the grid.

National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315594 (URN)10.1109/TIA.2017.2669890 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-15 Created: 2017-02-15 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
16. Passive Axial Thrust Bearing for a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Axial Thrust Bearing for a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Show others...
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212104 (URN)
Conference
The 1st Brazilian Workshop on Magnetic Bearings
Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2017-10-24
17. Magnetic Modeling and Measurement of Forces Between Permanent Magnet Rings used as Passive Magnetic Bearings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic Modeling and Measurement of Forces Between Permanent Magnet Rings used as Passive Magnetic Bearings
Show others...
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: , 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212880 (URN)
Conference
1st Brazilian Workshop on Magnetic Bearings, BWMB 2013
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2017-08-24
18. Eddy Currents in a Passive Magnetic Axial Thrust Bearing for a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eddy Currents in a Passive Magnetic Axial Thrust Bearing for a Flywheel Energy Storage System
Show others...
2017 (English)In: International journal of applied electromagnetics and mechanics, ISSN 1383-5416, E-ISSN 1875-8800, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 389-404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two types of passive magnetic lift bearings were evaluated in terms of thrust force and eddy current losses. The first type of bearings were based on two sets of segmented Halbach arrays mounted in repulsive mode, and the second type was based on ring-magnets. The eddy-currents studied arose in the bearing due to manufacturing variations of magnetic remanence, and due to non-radial magnetization. Both a 3D time-dependent and a quasi-stationary Finite-Element Method (FEM) formulation were used, and the simulated results were compared with lift-force measurements from experiment. The losses were found (by FEM) to be in the order of 25 W at a rotational speed of 30000 rpm while lifting a 45 kg rotor with a stiffness of 359 N/mm.

Keywords
Flywheel energy storage; magnetic bearings; FEM; eddy-currents
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317880 (URN)10.3233/JAE-16015 (DOI)000405742300008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2017-10-24Bibliographically approved
19. Design and characterization of a rotating brushless PM exciter for a synchronous generator test setup
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design and characterization of a rotating brushless PM exciter for a synchronous generator test setup
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Design and characterization of a rotating brushless PM exciter for a synchronous generator test setup / [ed] IEEE Xplore, 2016, p. 259-265Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper deals with the characterization and construction of a rotating brushless PM exciter intended for synchronous generator excitation purposes. Traditionally, PM exciters are used as pre-exciters in synchronous generator excitations systems. In order to reduce the number of components and to increase the step time response of the system, a PM exciter is designed as an outer pole PM machine, with permanent magnets on the stator and armature windings on the rotor. The exciter was constructed electrically and mechanically to be fitted into an in-house synchronous generator test setup. A finite element model of the exciter was validated with no-load measurements of voltages and magnetic flux densities. The exciter was then characterized with unsaturated and saturated parameters.

Keywords
Brushless exciters, rotating exciters, permanent magnet machines, machine design, voltage measurement
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292798 (URN)10.1109/ICELMACH.2016.7732536 (DOI)000390884900037 ()9781509025381 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Electrical Machines 2016 (ICEM'16), Lausanne, SWITZERLAND, SEP 04-07, 2016
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2017-11-20Bibliographically approved
20. Initial Performance Tests of a Permanent Magnet Thrust Bearing for a Hydropower Synchronous Generator Test-Rig
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial Performance Tests of a Permanent Magnet Thrust Bearing for a Hydropower Synchronous Generator Test-Rig
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284944 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
AIM 2016
Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2017-11-20
21. Analysis of passive magnetic bearings for kinetic energy storage systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of passive magnetic bearings for kinetic energy storage systems
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linz, Austria: , 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237550 (URN)
Conference
14th International Symposium on Magnetic Bearings
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2017-08-24
22. Passive Magnetic Bearing System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Magnetic Bearing System
Show others...
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: , 2014
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-237551 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Magnetically Levitaded Systems and Linear Drives
Available from: 2014-12-03 Created: 2014-12-03 Last updated: 2017-08-24
23. Construction of a Permanent Magnet Thrust Bearing for a Hydropower Generator Test Setup
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Construction of a Permanent Magnet Thrust Bearing for a Hydropower Generator Test Setup
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: , 2013
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Science of Electricity
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212881 (URN)
Conference
1st Brazilian Workshop on Magnetic Bearings, BWMB 2013
Available from: 2013-12-16 Created: 2013-12-16 Last updated: 2017-08-24

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1650 kB)207 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1650 kBChecksum SHA-512
7190480d51b38e5a89ea404a17e5775e48b1392e91fb282d9dcfaf336cf9038c20e7e78d4183284a1fb52a8d9e039b2f5e58972d4b967d731e764940bba1a4b4
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Buy this publication >>

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Pérez-Loya, J. J.
By organisation
Electricity
Engineering and Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 207 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 920 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf