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Thamnolia tundrae sp nov., a cryptic species and putative glacial relict
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. (Johannesson Lab)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. (Johannesson Lab)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
2018 (English)In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lichen species of the genus Thamnolia, with their striking wormlike thalli and frequent occurrence in arctic and tundra environments, have often been debated with regard to the use of chemistry in lichen taxonomy. Phylogenetic studies have arrived at different conclusions as to the recognition of species in the genus, but in a recent study based on the analyses of six nuclear markers (genes or noncoding regions) of a worldwide sample of Thamnolia, we showed the existence of three well-supported lineages with two different chemistries and geographical distributions. Here, we present two analyses based on ITS and three markers, respectively, which were extended from the study mentioned above to include type specimens and additional Thamnolia strains and taxa. In these analyses the same three clades were retrieved. A putative DEAD-box helicase is used here for the first time as an informative phylogenetic marker to provide taxonomic resolution at species level. The distribution of morphological and chemical characters across the phylogeny was analyzed and it was concluded that three morphologically cryptic, but genetically well supported, species occur: T. vermicularis s. str., T. subuliformis s. str. and T. tundrae sp. nov. Thamnolia vermicularis s. str. contains individuals with uniform secondary chemistry (producing thamnolic acid) and a rather limited distribution in the European Alps, Tatra Mts and the Western Carpathians, a distribution which might result from glacial survival in an adjacent refugium/refugia. Thamnolia subuliformis s. str. is widely distributed in all hemispheres and the samples contain two chemotypes (either with thamnolic or squamatic acids). Thamnolia tundrae is described as new; it produces baeomycesic and squamatic acids, and has a distribution limited to the arctic tundra of Eurasia extending to the Aleutian Islands in North America. It may have survived the latest glaciation in coastal refugia near its present distribution. Thus, secondary chemistry alone is not suitable for characterizing species in Thamnolia, secondary chemistry and geographical origin are informative, and the ITS region can be confidently used for species recognition. Nomenclatural notes are given on several other names that have been used in Thamnolia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018. Vol. 50, no 1, p. 59-75
Keywords [en]
lichens, molecular phylogeny, new species, nomenclature, secondary chemistry, taxonomy
National Category
Biological Systematics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319635DOI: 10.1017/S0024282917000615ISI: 000427733800004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-319635DiVA, id: diva2:1087342
Note

Title in Thesis list of papers: Thamnolia tundrae n. sp., a cryptic species and putative glacial relict

Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The puzzle of lichen symbiosis: Pieces from Thamnolia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The puzzle of lichen symbiosis: Pieces from Thamnolia
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Symbiosis brought important evolutionary novelties to life on Earth. Lichens, the symbiotic entities formed by fungi, photosynthetic organisms and bacteria, represent an example of a successful adaptation in surviving hostile environments. Yet many aspects of the lichen symbiosis remain unexplored. This thesis aims at bringing insights into lichen biology and the importance of symbiosis in adaptation. I am using as model system a successful colonizer of tundra and alpine environments, the worm lichens Thamnolia, which seem to only reproduce vegetatively through symbiotic propagules. When the genetic architecture of the mating locus of the symbiotic fungal partner was analyzed with genomic and transcriptomic data, a sexual self-incompatible life style was revealed. However, a screen of the mating types ratios across natural populations detected only one of the mating types, suggesting that Thamnolia has no potential for sexual reproduction because of lack of mating partners. Genetic data based on molecular markers revealed the existence of three morphologically cryptic Thamnolia lineages. One lineage had a clear recombination structure and was found in the tundra region of Siberia, shorelines of Scandinavia, and Aleutian Islands. The other lineage was allopatric with the previous, and was highly clonal; only two haplotypes were found across the alpine region of central and southeastern Europe. However, the third lineage was sympatric with the other two, had a worldwide distribution, and although highly clonal, showed a recombinant population structure. Our data could not reveal whether the signs of recombination resulted from rare recombination events due to the extreme low frequency of the other mating type or ancestral variation before the loss of sexual reproduction. However, investigation of Thamnolia’s green algal population showed that in different localities, different algal genotypes were associated with the same fungal genotype. Furthermore, data suggest that Thamnolia carried several algal genotypes within its thalli and shared them with other distantly related but ecologically similar fungal species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 62
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1503
Keywords
Thamnolia, lichen, symbiosis, photobiont, mycobiont, phylogeography, MAT-loci, barcoding, NGS, genome, transcriptome, Ice Age
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Systematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319639 (URN)978-91-554-9887-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-01, Lindhalsalen, EBC, Norbyvägen 14, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-05-29

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