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Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. Ningbo RK Solar Tech. Ltd., China.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8271-7512
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
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2017 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system's Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 133, p. 249-263
Keywords [en]
Battery, Genetic algorithm, Operation strategy, Optimization, Photovoltaic
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201938DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.11.060ISI: 000392678900022Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85006791741OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-201938DiVA, id: diva2:1079214
Note

QC 20170307

Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2019-05-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Integration of Battery and Hydrogen Storage with a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System in Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Battery and Hydrogen Storage with a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System in Buildings
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

    The integration of Photovoltaic (PV) with buildings changes the previous electricity consumers into prosumers. The reduced PV subsidies and the grid stable operation requirements are pushing prosumers from direct exportation to self-consumption of the produced electricity. Electricity storage increases the self-consumption, while comes with higher investment. During the system planning stage, the benefits of storage should be clarified to prosumers. The storage type, the storage capacity and the system operation strategy should be determined at the same time.

    This thesis dealt with a grid-connected PV-storage system and proposed an optimization method, which simultaneously determined the storage capacity and rule-based operation strategy parameters. This method eliminated the necessity of forecasting and could be easily implemented. A typical residential building in Sweden was taken as a case study. Different operation strategies as well as two storage technologies – battery storage and hydrogen storage – were compared.

    For the battery storage system, the proposed battery hybrid operation strategy, which carries out the conventional operation strategy during warm months and the peak shaving strategy during cold months, provides the best performance in Self Sufficiency Ratio (SSR) and Net Present Value (NPV). For the hydrogen storage system, the hydrogen hybrid operation strategy outperforms other studied operation strategies under different scenarios, which have optimistic or pessimistic cost assumptions of the hydrogen storage system.

    The comparison between hydrogen storage and battery storage suggests that battery storage has much better performance in SSR and NPV under the pessimistic cost scenario. Under the optimistic cost scenario, battery storage and hydrogen storage achieve comparable performance in SSR and NPV. However, hydrogen storage is more favorable when considering reducing the prosumer’s negative impact on the grid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 43
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:25
Keywords
Photovoltaic, Grid, Building, Battery, Hydrogen Storage, Operation Strategy, Optimization
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205211 (URN)978-91-7729-355-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-15, E36, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170412

Available from: 2017-04-12 Created: 2017-04-11 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
2.
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3. Integration of Distributed Renewable Energy and Energy Storages in Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of Distributed Renewable Energy and Energy Storages in Buildings
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Photovoltaic (PV) is a distributed renewable energy technology that is suitable for integration in buildings. PV reduces the electricity demands as well as the greenhouse gas emissions of buildings. However, the surplus electricity from PV is exported to the electricity grid, which not only lowers the economic performance of the PV but also creates operational problems in the grid. Efficient approaches should be identified to improve PV’s economic and environmental performance.

Buildings differ by their connections to energy networks. In buildings that are only connected to the electricity grid, electrical energy storages— including battery and hydrogen storage—can mitigate the mismatch between production and consumption. When a grid-connected PV system follows the conventional operation strategy, its economic performance worsens with storage. Two new operation strategies are developed. With a developed optimization framework, operation strategies and storage capacities are optimized simultaneously. Optimization results indicate that both net present value and self-sufficiency ratio are increased by storages. A comparison between battery storages and hydrogen storages shows that the hydrogen storage can compete with the battery counterpart under an optimistic hydrogen storage cost scenario. In addition, the hydrogen storage can better decrease the exported electricity.

In buildings that are connected to the electricity grid and the district heating network, additional energy conversion and storage equipment— including heat pumps, electrical heaters, and hot water tanks—can be installed to form an integrated energy system (IES). After optimal system sizing, the IES decreases the net present cost by 22%, and the self-consumption ratio increases from 43% to 61%. Moreover, the IES serves as a new flexibility measure, and the provided flexibility energy is over 36% of its electricity consumption. During system planning, the system configuration and operation cost are obtained without considering forecast errors. Through the year-round simulation of system operation that considers forecast errors, a corrected operation cost is obtained. The yearly operation cost difference between system operation and system planning is less than 4% and 6% under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios.

Abstract [sv]

Solcellen (PV) är en distribuerad förnybar energiteknik som är lämplig att integreras i byggnader. PV minskar elförbrukning och växthusgasutsläpp från byggnader. Överskottet från PV exporteras till elnätet. Detta försämrar inte bara PV:ns ekonomiska prestanda, men skapar också operativa problem i nätet. Effektiva metoder bör därför identifieras för att förbättra PV:ns ekonomiska och miljömässiga prestanda.

Byggnader skiljer sig i hur de är anslutna till energinätet. I byggnader som endast är anslutna till elnätet, kan el-lager, inklusive batteri och vätgaslager, utjämna skillnader mellan produktion och konsumtion. Om det nätanslutna PV-systemet följer den konventionella operationsstrategin, försämras den ekonomiska prestandan med el-lager. I denna avhandling har två nya driftsstrategier utvecklats. Tillsammans med ett utvecklat ramverk för optimering, kan driftsstrategier och lagringskapaciteter optimeras samtidigt. Optimeringsresultaten indikerar att både nuvärdet (NPV) och självförsörjningsgraden (SSR) ökar när el-lager används. Jämförelsen mellan batteri och vätgaslager visar att vätgaslager kan konkurrera med batteri under ett optimistiskt kostnadsscenario för vätgaslagring. Dessutom kan vätgaslagring minska exporterad el-mängd bättre.

I byggnader som är anslutna till elnätet och fjärrvärmenätet kan flera energiomvandlings- och lagringstekniker användas, inklusive värmepumpar, direktverkande el och varmvattentankar. Dessa kan installeras för att bilda ett integrerat energisystem (IES). Genom optimering, kan IES minska kostnaden med 22% och självförbrukningsgraden ökar från 43% till 61%. Dessutom fungerar IES som en ny flexibilitetsåtgärd. Den tillhandahållna flexibilitetsenergin överstiger 36% av elförbrukningen. Under systemplanering erhålls systemkonfiguration och driftskostnad utan övervägande av prognosfel. Genom simulering av systemdrift som inkluderar prognosfel erhålls en korrigerad driftskostnad. Kostnadsskillnaden mellan drift av systemet och systemplanering är mindre än 4% och 6% vid hög och låg prognosprecision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 56
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 27
Keywords
Building, PV, Energy Storage, Operation, Optimization, Flexibility
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250233 (URN)978-91-7873-193-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-04, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 2019-05-08

Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-04 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved

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