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Inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor potentiates acute effects of castration in a rat model for prostate cancer growth in bone
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, ISSN 0262-0898, E-ISSN 1573-7276, Vol. 34, nr 3-4, s. 261-271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Prostate cancer (PCa) patients with bone metastases are primarily treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Less pronounced ADT effects are seen in metastases than in primary tumors. To test if acute effects of ADT was enhanced by concurrent inhibition of pro-survival insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), rats were inoculated with Dunning R3327-G tumor cells into the tibial bone marrow cavity and established tumors were treated with castration in combination with IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitor NVP-AEW541, or by each treatment alone. Dunning R3327-G cells were stimulated by androgens and IGF-1 in vitro. In rat tibia, Dunning R3327-G cells induced bone remodeling, identified through increased immunoreactivity of osteoblast and osteoclast markers. Tumor cells occasionally grew outside the tibia, and proliferation and apoptotic rates a few days after treatment were evaluated by scoring BrdU- and caspase-3-positive tumor cells inside and outside the bone marrow cavity, separately. Apoptosis was significantly induced outside, but unaffected inside, the tibial bone by either castration or NVP-AEW541, and the maximum increase (2.7-fold) was obtained by the combined treatment. Proliferation was significantly reduced by NVP-AEW541, independently of growth site, although the maximum decrease (24%) was observed when NVP-AEW541 was combined with castration. Tumor cell IGF-1R immunoreactivity was evaluated in clinical PCa bone metastases (n = 61), and positive staining was observed in most cases (74%). In conclusion, IGF-1R inhibition may be evaluated in combination with ADT in patients with metastatic PCa, or in combination with therapies for the subsequent development of castration-resistant disease, although diverse responses could be anticipated depending on metastasis site.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Springer, 2017. Vol. 34, nr 3-4, s. 261-271
Nyckelord [en]
Bone metastasis, IGF-1R, Apoptosis, Proliferation, Immune response, RUNX2, TRAP
Nationell ämneskategori
Cancer och onkologi
Forskningsämne
onkologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131804DOI: 10.1007/s10585-017-9848-8ISI: 000401996600008PubMedID: 28447314OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-131804DiVA, id: diva2:1076166
Anmärkning

Special Issue.

Originally published in thesis in manuscript form.

Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-22 Skapad: 2017-02-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-20Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Prostate cancer and bone cell interactions: implications for metastatic growth and therapy
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prostate cancer and bone cell interactions: implications for metastatic growth and therapy
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The skeleton is the most common site of prostate cancer bone metastasis, and at present, there are no curable treatments for these patients. To further understand what stimulates tumor cell growth in the bone microenvironment and to find suitable therapies, reliable model systems are needed. For this purpose, we have developed an in vitro co-culture system that can be used to study interactions between tumor cells and murine calvarial bones. To validate the model, we measured the release of collagen fragments and monitored changes in expression levels of genes normally expressed during active bone remodeling.

One of the major reasons why prostate cancer cells colonize bone is the abundance of tumor-stimulating factors, such as insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), present in this milieu. We found that the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) was one of the most highly activated receptor tyrosine kinases in tumor cell lines stimulated with bone conditioned media. Since IGF-1 is known to be a strong survival factor for tumor cells, we hypothesized, that concurrent inhibition of IGF-1R signaling can enhance the effects of apoptosis-inducing therapies, such as castration. We used our co-culture model to target human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and 22Rv1, with simvastatin (an inhibitor of the mevalonate pathway and an inducer of apoptosis), in combination with anti-IGF-1R therapy. Tumor cell viability declined with either one of the therapies used alone, and the effect was even more pronounced with the combined treatment. The hypothesis was also tested in rats that had been inoculated with rat prostate cancer cells, Dunning R3327-G, into the tibial bone, and treated with either anti-IGF-1R therapy, castration, or a combination of both therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate therapeutic effects on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as tumor cell effects on bone remodeling. The tumor cells were found to induce an osteoblastic response, both in vivo in rats, and in vitro using the co-culture model. Interestingly, the therapeutic response differed depending on whether tumor cells were located within the bone marrow cavity or if they had leaked out into the knee joint cavity, highlighting the role of the microenvironment on metastatic growth and therapeutic response. Therapies targeting the IGF-1R have been tested in clinical trials, unfortunately with disappointing results. By immunohistochemical evaluation of bone metastases from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, we found a large variance in IGF-1R staining within this group of patients. Hence, we postulate that the effects of anti-IGF-1R therapies could be more beneficial in patients with high tumoral IGF-1R-activity than in IGF-1R negative cases. We also believe that side effects, such as hyperglycemia, associated with anti-IGF-1R therapy, could be reduced if this treatment is administered only to selected patients and for shorter time periods.

In a separate study, using whole-genome expression data from bone metastases obtained from prostate cancer patients, we present evidence that a high activity of osteoblasts is coupled to a high activity of osteoclast. Moreover, we found that high bone remodeling activity is inversely related to tumor cell androgen receptor (AR) activity. The results from this study may be of importance when selecting therapy for patients with bone metastatic cancer, especially when bone-targeting therapies are considered, and could aid in the search for novel therapeutic targets.

In summary, we present an in vitro model for studies of the bidirectional interplay between prostate cancer cells and the bone microenvironment. We also demonstrate the importance of IGF-1 in prostate cancer bone metastases and suggest that inhibition of IGF-1R signaling can be used to treat prostate cancer as well as to enhance effects of other treatments such as androgen deprivation therapy. Furthermore, we emphasize the possibility of molecular tumor characterization when designing treatment plans for individual patients, thereby maximizing the therapeutic effects.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2017. s. 65
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1886
Nationell ämneskategori
Cancer och onkologi
Forskningsämne
onkologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-131809 (URN)978-91-7601-678-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-03-17, Hörsal E04, Byggnad 6A, Norrland universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-24 Skapad: 2017-02-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad

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