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End-to-End Response Time of 61499 Distributed Applications over Switched Ethernet
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1791-535X
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5311-1781
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Number of Authors: 62017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 287-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The IEC 61499 standard provides means to specify distributed control systems in terms of function blocks. For the deployment, each device may hold one or many logical resources, each consisting of a function block network with service interface blocks at the edges. The execution model is event driven (asynchronous), where triggering events may be associated with data (and seen as messages). In this paper, we propose a low complexity implementation technique allowing to assess end-to-end response times of event chains spanning over a set of networked devices. Based on a translation of IEC 61499 to RTFM1-tasks and resources, the response time for each task in the system at device-level can be derived using established scheduling techniques. In this paper, we develop a holistic method to provide safe end-to-end response times taking both intra- and inter-device delivery delays into account. The novelty of our approach is the accuracy of the system scheduling overhead characterization. While the device-level (RTFM) scheduling overhead was discussed in previous works, the network-level scheduling overhead for switched Ethernets is discussed in this paper. The approach is generally applicable to a wide range of COTS Ethernet switches without a need for expensive custom solutions to provide hard real-time performance. A behavior characterization of the utilized switch determines the guaranteed response times. As a use case, we study the implementation onto (single-core) ARMcortex based devices communicating over a switched Ethernet network. For the analysis, we define a generic switch model and an experimental setup allowing us to study the impact of network topology as well as 802.1Q quality of service in a mixed critical setting. Our results indicate that safe sub millisecond end-to-end response times can be obtained using the proposed approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017. Vol. 13, no 1, p. 287-297
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60286DOI: 10.1109/TII.2016.2626463ISI: 000395874400029Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85013444377OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-60286DiVA, id: diva2:1045792
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-02-21 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Enabling Reactive Design of Robust Real-Time Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling Reactive Design of Robust Real-Time Embedded Systems
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded System
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62322 (URN)978-91-7583-835-9 (ISBN)978-91-7583-836-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-24, D770, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
2. !secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>!secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of our research work is on readily accessible, embedded, real-time development with concurrency support. To this end, we develop the Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) programming framework with a model of computation based on tasks and resources and that stipulates a timing semantics. Typically, hard real-time requirements are a characteristic of safety-critical applications. In contrast to runtime verification, such applications primarily require static assurances concerning safety and security attributes. This thesis discusses the building blocks for a statically analyzable programming paradigm for embedded real-time applications and its implementation. Svenska kraftnät funded the research presented in this thesis and set the scope to industrial automation. Consequently, we also investigate the applicability of our RTFM framework for scheduling and resource management for the runtime environments of industrial applications. We start by reviewing relevant and well-established industry standards to build background knowledge of the state-of-the-art safety and security requirements in software development. Special attention is placed on the IEC 61131 and IEC 61499 standards for industrial software development and their programming and execution model. We show the feasibility of using IEC 61499 as a holistic, distributed, and hierarchical model with mappings from the functional layer (IEC 61499 function block networks) and safety layer (PLCopen safety function blocks) to RTFM. We also demonstrate that our Rust-based RTFM implementation enables static verification for a myriad of safety and security attributes. Moreover, our investigations reveal a mutual dependency of safety and security in the context of software systems. For this reason, we believe and argue that safety and security cannot be considered independent during the design and implementation of safety-critical applications. Upon closer examination, we even conclude that safety and security are equivalent.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
embedded systems, hard real-time, concurrency, model of computation, safety-critical, safety, security, industrial automation, RTFM, real-time for the masses
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73059 (URN)978-91-7790-320-8 (ISBN)978-91-7790-321-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-08, A3024, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved

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