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The Migratory Behaviour and Fallback Rate of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: does Timing Matter?
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-9683-8080
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-8738-8815
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013). (Naturresurs rinnande vatten)ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3191-7140
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3098-0594
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 1402-1409Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Resurstyp
Text
Abstract [en]

The behavior of early (June-July) and late (August-September) migrating, adult Atlantic salmon, in The River Klaralven, Sweden, was analyzed using radio telemetry. River Klaralven is a regulated river without functioning fishways, instead upstream migrating salmon are trapped and trucked past eight hydropower plants before released back to the river. We distinguished two parts of the spawning migration, that is, one part being the migration from the place where the fish was released to the spawning grounds. The other part was a holding phase on the spawning grounds with little or no movements before spawning. The late salmon spent less of their total time on holding, 36.2%, and more on migration, 63.8%, compared with early migrating salmon, which distributed their time rather evenly between migration, 47.5%, and holding, 52.5%. In total, early salmon used 30% more time migrating and 156% more time holding than late salmon. Some Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fell back over the hydropower plant after release and got excluded from spawning. The fallback rates of transported, tagged spawners were higher in the early than in the late group in both years. The fallback rate in 2012 was 42.8% of the early group and 15.1% in the late. In 2013, there were 51.7 % fallbacks in the early group and 3.4% in the late. The salmon fell back on average 9days after being released in 2012 and 16days in 2013. A high mean daily discharge on the day of release increased the probability of becoming a fallback. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2016. Vol. 32, nr 6, s. 1402-1409
Nyckelord [en]
Atlantic Salmon, upstream migration, fallback, spawning, behaviour, timing
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-44678DOI: 10.1002/rra.3007ISI: 000379952900023OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-44678DiVA, id: diva2:952229
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-12 Skapad: 2016-08-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-11-25Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Conservation of landlocked Atlantic salmon in a regulated river: Behaviour of migratory spawners and juveniles
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams represent one of the major threats to river ecosystems today. The dams block migratory routes in many rivers, which is problematic for migratory fish species. Trap-and-transport may be an alternative to fish passage solutions, as a strategy to compensate for lost river connectivity. Stocking of hatchery fish is another mitigating measure often used to compensate for reduced yields in fisheries, but also as supportive breeders in declining populations.

 

In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I also studied the function and success of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and if there are any effects of migratory timing on migratory success. Further, I evaluated upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout at fishways in rivers Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway. The goal was to determine if prior fishway experience had an effect on passage success. I identified three problems associated with the current river management, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction. Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling and brown trout. I found no evidence of Atlantic salmon affecting grayling or brown trout. Instead, Atlantic salmon were dominated by the other two species, which indicates that reintroduction of salmon may not be successful, especially if habitat diversity is constrained.

 

Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of their ecology and life-histories. In the regulated river Klarälven, populations of landlocked Atlantic salmon and migratory brown trout have declined due to river exploitation. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments.

Abstract [en]

In this thesis, I report the results from radio-telemetry studies where the behavior and success of migrating Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) spawners has been investigated in a regulated river. I have also studied the function of using hatchery fish as supportive breeders and evaluated the upstream passage performance by Atlantic salmon and brown trout (Salmo trutta) at fishways in the River Klarälven, Sweden and Gudbrandslågen, Norway.

I identified three problems associated with management in a regulated river, namely the high incidence of fallbacks among the early migrating salmon, the negative effects of high river flow and prior experience on fishway efficacy and that the use of hatchery-reared fish as supportive breeders have little, if any, positive effect on reproduction.

Finally, I examined the competitive interactions that may occur when reintroducing Atlantic salmon to areas with native grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and brown trout.

Conservation and management of migratory salmonids requires an understanding of ecology and life-histories. The results presented in this thesis originate from concerns regarding salmonid conservation in regulated rivers, with a focus on the difficulties migratory spawners may face in these altered environments. The results of my research can be applied to other regulated systems, particularly those with trap and transport solutions.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2019. s. 51
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2019:7
Nyckelord
Atlantic salmon, conservation, migration, spawning, hydropower, competition, juveniles, brown trout, hatchery reared, fallback, delay
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-71333 (URN)978-91-7867-002-4 (ISBN)978-91-7867-007-9 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-04-12, Sjöströmssalen 1B309, Karlstad Universitet, Karlstad, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

Artikel 3 med i avhandlingen som manuskript, nu publicerad.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-22 Skapad: 2019-02-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad

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Av författaren/redaktören
Hagelin, AnnaCalles, OlleGreenberg, LarryNyqvist, DanielBergman, Eva
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Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013)
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Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management
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