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The effect of gaze on consumers’ encounter evaluation
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7480-9318
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Centrum för tjänsteforskning. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studier.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8102-8168
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Avdelningen för psykologi. Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för ekonomi, kommunikation och IT, Centrum för tjänsteforskning.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7006-9906
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 372-396Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The research concerns the effect of frontline employees’ averted or direct gaze on consumers’ evaluation of the encounter. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that in normal interactions, a direct or averted gaze affects people’s evaluation of others. The question was whether this finding would hold true in commercial interactions.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted three experiments using a written scenario with a photograph among a total sample of 612 participants.

Findings – This research showed that consumers’ social impression of the frontline employees mediated the effect of the employees’ gazing behaviour on consumers’ emotions and satisfaction with the encounters. The findings also showed that averting gaze had a negative effect on consumers’ first impression of the frontline employee, which affected consumers’ satisfaction with the encounter. The findings also showed that a direct gaze had a negative effect on encounter satisfaction when consumers sought to purchase embarrassing products.

Originality/value – The research demonstrated that the effect of gaze on encounter satisfaction was mediated by the social impression and moderated by consumers’ approach/avoidance motivation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016. Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 372-396
Nyckelord [en]
Satisfaction, Frontline employee, Encounter experience, Eye gaze, Social impression
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-41915DOI: 10.1108/IJRDM-03-2015-0034ISI: 000381914700002OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-41915DiVA, id: diva2:923027
Tillgänglig från: 2016-04-25 Skapad: 2016-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Changing the servicescape: The influence of music, self-disclosure and eye gaze on service encounter experience and approach-avoidance behavior
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Changing the servicescape: The influence of music, self-disclosure and eye gaze on service encounter experience and approach-avoidance behavior
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ service encounter experience and their approach/avoidance behavior in a retail context. In three papers, with a total sample of over 1600 participants (including 550 actual consumers) and seven experiments, the author investigates the effect of music (ambient stimuli), employees’ self-disclosure (verbal social stimuli) and employees’ gazing behavior (nonverbal social stimuli) on consumers’ service encounter experience and approach/avoidance behavior in a retail store.

Paper I comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of music on emotions, approach/avoidance behavior. Paper II comprised two experiments, and the aim was to investigate the effect of frontline employees’ personal self-disclosure on consumers’ reciprocal behavior. Paper III comprised three experiments, and the aim was to investigate the influence of employee’s direct eye gaze/ averted eye gaze on consumer emotions, social impression of the frontline employee and encounter satisfaction in different purchase situations.

The results in this thesis show that music affects consumers in both positive and negative ways (Paper I). Self-disclosure affects consumers negatively, in such a way that it decreases encounter satisfaction  (Paper II) and, finally, eye gaze affects consumers by regulating both positively – and in some cases also negatively – consumers’ social impression of the frontline employee and their encounter satisfaction (Paper III).

The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the purchase situation, type of retail, and stimuli, the internal and behavioral responses are different.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and understand the effect of a servicescape’s ambient and social conditions on consumers’ service encounter experience and their approach/avoidance behavior in a retail context. In three papers, with a total sample of over 1600 participants (including 550 actual consumers) and seven experiments, the author investigates the effect of music, employees’ self-disclosure and employees’ gazing behavior on consumers’ service encounter experience and approach/avoidance behavior in a retail store.

The results in this thesis show that music affects consumers in both positive and negative ways (Paper I). Self-disclosure affects consumers negatively, in such a way that it decreases encounter satisfaction (Paper II) and, finally, eye gaze affects consumers by regulating both positively – and in some cases also negatively – consumers’ social impression of the frontline employee and their encounter satisfaction (Paper III).

The conclusions of this thesis are that both ambient and social stimuli in a servicescape affect consumers’ internal responses, which in turn affect their behavior. Depending on the purchase situation, type of retail, and stimuli, the internal and behavioral responses are different.

 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2016:39
Nyckelord
Servicescape, Approach/Avoidance, Emotions, Social impression, Consumer behavior, Encounter experience, Music, Self-disclosure, Eye gaze, Retail
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46417 (URN)978-91-7063-722-3 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-12-09, 11 D 227, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 13:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-21 Skapad: 2016-10-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-21Bibliografiskt granskad

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Av författaren/redaktören
Andersson K, PernilleWästlund, ErikKristensson, Per
Av organisationen
Institutionen för sociala och psykologiska studierCentrum för tjänsteforskningAvdelningen för psykologiCentrum för tjänsteforskning
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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management
Psykologi

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