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Adjusting to the extreme: Thermal adaptation in a freshwater gastropod
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
2015 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Temperature is a ubiquitous force influencing biological processes ranging from cellular responses to life span. The thermal environment for many organisms is predicted to change with globally increasing temperatures and studies conducted in natural systems incorporating various evolutionary forces, such as gene flow, is needed. In my thesis, I investigate how snails (Radix balthica) originating from distinct geothermal environments within Lake Mývatn in northern Iceland have adapted, both genetically and phenotypically, to the respective thermal regime. Locations were classified as either cold, warm or seasonal depending on the average and variance in temperature. A high resolution spatial distribution of genetic variation within Mývatn was obtained using both neutral and outlier AFLPs. In addition, the genetic profile enabled me identify warm origin snails irrespective of geographic location in Iceland. Warm environments were often more stressful than cold or seasonal environments but snails originating from a high temperature location benefited from increased performance elsewhere. Patterns of growth were identical in both common garden and reciprocal transplant experiment; warm origin snails grew faster than both cold and seasonal origin snails. This result is in concordance with quantitative genetics models of thermal adaptation but suggesting cogradient rather than countergradient variation. Although warm origin snails generally had superior performance, survival at cold temperatures (< 12 °C) was reduced. All snails matured at similar size in the common garden experiment but cold origin snails were observed to mature later and lay fewer eggs. Also, snails had a common optimum for growth rate at 20 °C irrespective of thermal origin. This is arguably the reason why snails were observed to have a common thermal preference. Interestingly, warm origin snails had a reduced tolerance to high temperatures compared to cold and seasonal origin snails which did not differ in tolerance. Putatively, natural selection has reduced a putatively unnecessary trait (high temperature tolerance in a stable thermal environment) in favour of higher growth rate and performance in warm habitats. In conclusion, the price of high performance in a warm environment was paid in terms of reduced survival at low temperatures and a potential disadvantage of reduced genetic variability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , s. 49
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1251
Nyckelord [en]
Radix balthica, Lake Mývatn, geothermal springs, thermal adaptation, isolation by environment, population structure, gene flow, cogradient variation, AFLP, thermal preference, CTmax
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi med inriktning mot populationsbiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248495ISBN: 978-91-554-9243-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-248495DiVA, id: diva2:801342
Disputation
2015-06-05, Zootissalen, Villavägen 9, 2tr, Uppsala, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2015-05-13 Skapad: 2015-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-07-07
Delarbeten
1. AFLPs and Mitochondrial Haplotypes Reveal Local Adaptation to Extreme Thermal Environments in a Freshwater Gastropod
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>AFLPs and Mitochondrial Haplotypes Reveal Local Adaptation to Extreme Thermal Environments in a Freshwater Gastropod
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2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. e101821-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher F-ST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci under selection may help disentangle the effects of gene flow, genetic drift and selection among populations living in contrasting environments. Using the gastropod Radix balthica as a system, we analyzed 376 AFLP markers and 25 mtDNA COI haplotypes for candidate loci and associations with local adaptation among contrasting thermal environments in Lake Myvatn, a volcanic lake in northern Iceland. We found that 2% of the analysed AFLP markers were under directional selection and 12% of the mitochondrial haplotypes correlated with differing thermal habitats. The genetic networks were concordant for AFLP markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting distinct topologies at neutral and candidate loci. Neutral topologies were characterized by intense gene flow revealed by dense nets with edges connecting contrasting thermal habitats, whereas the connections at candidate loci were mostly restricted to populations within each thermal habitat and the number of edges decreased with temperature. Our results suggest microgeographic adaptation within Lake Myvatn and highlight the utility of genome scans in detecting adaptive divergence.

Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi Zoologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230100 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0101821 (DOI)000339040600068 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-09-01 Skapad: 2014-08-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-05Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Genetic divergance and isolation by environment in geothermal populations of the common pond snail (Radix balthica)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Genetic divergance and isolation by environment in geothermal populations of the common pond snail (Radix balthica)
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nyckelord
Radix balthica, AFLP, gene flow, temperature, landscape genetics
Nationell ämneskategori
Genetik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248493 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-09 Skapad: 2015-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-07-07
3. Local adaptation of gastropod life history to contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lake
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Local adaptation of gastropod life history to contrasting thermal environments in a geothermal lake
(Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Nyckelord
Radix balthica, common garden, reciprocal transplant, thermal adaptation, cogradient variation
Nationell ämneskategori
Zoologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248492 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-09 Skapad: 2015-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-07-28Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Similar temperature preference but different maximum tolerance in contrasting thermal populations of Radix balthica
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Similar temperature preference but different maximum tolerance in contrasting thermal populations of Radix balthica
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Zoologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248494 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-04-09 Skapad: 2015-03-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-07-07

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