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DSP based Chromatic Dispersion Equalization and Carrier Phase Estimation in High Speed Coherent Optical Transmission Systems
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Fotonik och optik, Optik.
2012 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Coherent detection employing multilevel modulation formats has become one of the most promising technologies for next generation high speed transmission systems due to the high power and spectral efficiencies. Using the powerful digital signal processing (DSP), coherent optical receivers allow the significant equalization of chromatic dispersion (CD), polarization mode dispersion (PMD), phase noise (PN) and nonlinear effects in the electrical domain. Recently, the realizations of these DSP algorithms for mitigating the channel distortions in the coherent transmission systems are the most attractive investigations.

The CD equalization can be performed by the digital filters developed in the time and the frequency domain, which can suppress the fiber dispersion effectively. The PMD compensation is usually performed in the time domain with the adaptive least mean square (LMS) and constant modulus algorithms (CMA) equalization. Feed-forward and feed-back carrier phase estimation (CPE) algorithms are employed to mitigate the phase noise (PN) from the transmitter (TX) and the local oscillator (LO) lasers. The fiber nonlinearities are compensated by using the digital backward propagation methods based on solving the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and the Manakov equation.

In this dissertation, we present a comparative analysis of three digital filters for chromatic dispersion compensation, a comparative evaluation of different carrier phase estimation methods considering digital equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) and a brief discussion for PMD adaptive equalization. To implement these investigations, a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent transmission system with post-compensation of dispersion is realized in the VPI simulation platform. In the coherent transmission system, these CD equalizers have been compared by evaluating their applicability for different fiber lengths, their usability for dispersion perturbations and their computational complexity. The carrier phase estimation using the one-tap normalized LMS (NLMS) filter, the differential detection, the block-average (BA) algorithm and the Viterbi-Viterbi (VV) algorithm is evaluated, and the analytical predictions are compared to the numerical simulations. Meanwhile, the phase noise mitigation using the radio frequency (RF) pilot tone is also investigated in a 56-Gbit/s NRZ single polarization QPSK (NRZ-SP-QPSK) coherent transmission system with post-compensation of chromatic dispersion. Besides, a 56-Gbit/s NRZ-SP-QPSK coherent transmission system with CD pre-distortion is also implemented to analyze the influence of equalization enhanced phase noise in more detail.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2012. , s. 72
Serie
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 12:06
Nyckelord [en]
coherent detection, chromatic dispersion, carrier phase estimation, quadrature phase shift keying
Nationell ämneskategori
Telekommunikation
Forskningsämne
SRA - Informations- och kommunikationsteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-94835ISBN: 978-91-7501-346-6 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-94835DiVA, id: diva2:526152
Disputation
2012-06-08, Sal/Hall C1, ICT-KTH Electrum, Isafjordsgatan 26, Kista, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning
QC 20120528Tillgänglig från: 2012-05-28 Skapad: 2012-05-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-05-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Analytical estimation of phase noise influence in coherent transmission system with digital dispersion equalization
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analytical estimation of phase noise influence in coherent transmission system with digital dispersion equalization
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2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, nr 8, s. 7756-7768Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a novel investigation on the enhancement of phase noise in coherent optical transmission system due to electronic chromatic dispersion compensation. Two types of equalizers, including a time domain fiber dispersion finite impulse response (FD-FIR) filter and a frequency domain blind look-up (BLU) filter are applied to mitigate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) transmission system. The bit-error-rate (BER) floor in phase estimation using an optimized one-tap normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) filter, and considering the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) is evaluated analytically including the correlation effects. The numerical simulations are implemented and compared with the performance of differential QPSK demodulation system. (C) 2011 Optical Society of America

Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-34201 (URN)10.1364/OE.19.007756 (DOI)000290482500074 ()2-s2.0-79953851378 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20110610Tillgänglig från: 2011-06-10 Skapad: 2011-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent transmission system using digital filters
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Chromatic dispersion compensation in coherent transmission system using digital filters
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2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 18, nr 15, s. 16243-16257Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a comparative analysis of three popular digital filters for chromatic dispersion compensation: a time-domain least mean square adaptive filter, a time-domain fiber dispersion finite impulse response filter, and a frequency-domain blind look-up filter. The filters are applied to equalize the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying transmission system. The characteristics of these filters are compared by evaluating their applicability for different fiber lengths, their usability for dispersion perturbations, and their computational complexity. In addition, the phase noise tolerance of these filters is also analyzed. (C) 2010 Optical Society of America

Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26873 (URN)000280693300106 ()2-s2.0-77954893944 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20101130Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-30 Skapad: 2010-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Normalized LMS digital filter for chromatic dispersion equalization in 112-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent optical transmission system
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Normalized LMS digital filter for chromatic dispersion equalization in 112-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent optical transmission system
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2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 283, nr 6, s. 963-967Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

High bit rates optical communication systems pose the challenge of their tolerance to linear and nonlinear fiber impairments. Coherent optical receivers using digital signal processing techniques can mitigate the fiber impairments in the optical transmission system, including the chromatic dispersion equalization with digital filters. In this paper, an adaptive finite impulse response filter employing normalized least mean square algorithm is developed for compensating the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying coherent communication system, which is established in the VPI Simulation platform. The principle of the adaptive normalized least mean square algorithm for signal equalization is analyzed theoretically, and at the meanwhile, the taps number and the tap weights in the adaptive finite impulse response filter for compensating a certain fiber chromatic dispersion are also investigated by numerical simulation. The chromatic dispersion compensation performance of the adaptive filter is analyzed by evaluating the behavior of the bit-error-rate versus the optical signal-to-noise ratio, and the compensation results are also compared with other present digital filters.

Nyckelord
Coherent optical receiver, Digital signal processing, Chromatic, dispersion equalization, Polarization division multiplexed quadrature, phase shift keying, Normalized least mean square algorithm, Adaptive, finite impulse response filter, compensation, receiver
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-19238 (URN)10.1016/j.optcom.2009.11.011 (DOI)000274769900017 ()2-s2.0-74549132513 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20100525Tillgänglig från: 2010-08-05 Skapad: 2010-08-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Frequency-domain chromatic dispersion equalization using overlap-add methods in coherent optical system
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Frequency-domain chromatic dispersion equalization using overlap-add methods in coherent optical system
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2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 27, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The frequency domain equalizers (FDEs) employing two types of overlap-add zero-padding (OLA-ZP) methods are applied to compensate the chromatic dispersion in a 112-Gbit/s non-return-to-zero polarization division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (NRZ-PDM-QPSK) coherent optical transmission system. Simulation results demonstrate that the OLA-ZP methods can achieve the same acceptable performance as the overlap-save method. The required minimum overlap (or zero-padding) in the FDE is derived, and the optimum fast Fourier transform length to minimize the computational complexity is also analyzed.

 

Nationell ämneskategori
Telekommunikation Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35416 (URN)2-s2.0-84859220890 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20110629Tillgänglig från: 2011-06-29 Skapad: 2011-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Receiver implemented RF pilot tone phase noise mitigation in coherent optical nPSK and nQAM systems
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Receiver implemented RF pilot tone phase noise mitigation in coherent optical nPSK and nQAM systems
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2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 19, nr 15, s. 14487-14494Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a novel method for extracting an RF pilot carrier signal in the coherent receiver is presented. The RF carrier is used to mitigate the phase noise influence in n-level PSK and QAM systems. The performance is compared to the use of an (ideal) optically transmitted RF pilot tone. As expected an electronically generated RF carrier provides less efficient phase noise mitigation than the optical RF. However, the electronically generated RF carrier still improves the phase noise tolerance by about one order of magnitude in bit error rate (BER) compared to using no RF pilot tone. It is also found, as a novel study result, that equalization enhanced phase noise - which appears as correlated pure phase noise, amplitude noise and time jitter - cannot be efficiently mitigated by the use of an (optically or electrically generated) RF pilot tone.

Nyckelord
DISPERSION COMPENSATION, TRANSMISSION-SYSTEM, DIGITAL-FILTERS, EQUALIZATION
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37263 (URN)10.1364/OE.19.014487 (DOI)000292877600080 ()2-s2.0-79960520226 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
ICT - The Next Generation
Anmärkning
QC 20110810Tillgänglig från: 2011-08-10 Skapad: 2011-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-08Bibliografiskt granskad
6. EEPN and CD study for coherent optical nPSK and nQAM systems with RF pilot based phase noise compensation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>EEPN and CD study for coherent optical nPSK and nQAM systems with RF pilot based phase noise compensation
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2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 8862-8870Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A radio frequency (RF) carrier can be used to mitigate the phase noise impact in n-level PSK and QAM systems. The systems performance is influenced by the use of an RF pilot carrier to accomplish phase noise compensation through complex multiplication in combination with discrete filters to compensate for the chromatic dispersion (CD). We perform a detailed study comparing two filters for the CD compensation namely the fixed frequency domain equalizer (FDE) filter and the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter. The study provides important novel physical insight into the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) influence on the system bit-error-rate (BER) versus optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) performance. Important results of the analysis are that the FDE filter position relative to the RF carrier phase noise compensation module provides a possibility for choosing whether the EEPN from the Tx or the LO laser influences the system quality. The LMS filter works very inefficiently when placed prior to the RF phase noise compensation stage of the Rx whereas it works much more efficiently and gives almost the same performance as the FDE filter when placed after the RF phase noise compensation stage.

Nyckelord
Carrier phase, Complex multiplication, Discrete filter, Fixed frequency, Least mean squares, Noise compensation, Noise impact, Pilot carrier, Radio frequencies, System quality, Systems performance
Nationell ämneskategori
Telekommunikation
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95258 (URN)10.1364/OE.20.008862 (DOI)000302855500063 ()2-s2.0-84860148490 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20120521Tillgänglig från: 2012-05-21 Skapad: 2012-05-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
7. Error-rate floors in differential n-level phase-shift-keying coherent receivers employing electronic dispersion equalisation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Error-rate floors in differential n-level phase-shift-keying coherent receivers employing electronic dispersion equalisation
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2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 32, s. 191-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A model for the phase noise influence in differential n-level phase shift keying (nPSK) systems and 2nlevel quadrature amplitude modulated (2nQAM) systems employing electronic dispersion equalization and quadruple carrier phase extraction is presented. The model includes the dispersion equalization enhanced local oscillator phase noise influence. Numerical results for phase noise error-rate floors are given for dual polarization (DQPSK, Dl6PSK and D64PSK) system configurations with basic baud-rate of 25 GS/s. The transmission distance in excess of 1000 km requires local oscillator lasers with sub-MHz linewidth.

Nyckelord
Amplitude modulated; Baud rate; Carrier phase; Coherent receivers; Coherent system; Dual-polarizations; Electronic dispersions; Equalisation; Local oscillators; N-level phase-shift-keying systems; Noise influence; Numerical results; System configurations; Transmission distances, Dispersions; Floors; Phase noise; Phase shift, Phase shift keying
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95480 (URN)10.1515/JOC.2011.031 (DOI)2-s2.0-80054756993 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20120528Tillgänglig från: 2012-05-28 Skapad: 2012-05-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
8. Influence of pre-and post-compensation of chromatic dispersion on equalization enhanced phase noise in coherent multilevel systems
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of pre-and post-compensation of chromatic dispersion on equalization enhanced phase noise in coherent multilevel systems
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2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of optical communications, ISSN 0173-4911, E-ISSN 2191-6322, Vol. 32, s. 257-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we present a comparative study of the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) for preand post-compensation of chromatic dispersion in high capacity and high constellation systems. This is - to our knowledge - the first detailed study in this area for precompensation systems. Our main results show that the local oscillator phase noise determines the EEPN influence in post-compensation implementations whereas the transmitter laser determines the EEPN in pre-compensation implementations. As a result of significance for the implementation of practical longer-range systems it is to be emphasized that the use of chromatic dispersion equalization in the optical domain - e.g. by the use of dispersion compensation fibers - eliminates the EEPN entirely. Thus, this seems an efficient solution for such systems operating at high constellations in the future.

Nyckelord
Comparative studies; Constellation systems; Dispersion-compensation fibers; Equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN); High capacity; Local oscillators; Multi-level systems; Optical domains; Post-compensation; Pre-compensation; Quadrature phase shifts; Transmitter lasers, Chromatic dispersion; Dispersion compensation; Phase noise; Quadrature phase shift keying, Dispersions
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-95481 (URN)10.1515/JOC.2011.053 (DOI)2-s2.0-84862909225 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning
QC 20120528Tillgänglig från: 2012-05-28 Skapad: 2012-05-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
9. Digital compensation of chromatic dispersion in 112-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK system
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Digital compensation of chromatic dispersion in 112-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK system
Visa övriga...
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009, 2009, s. 5377275-Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Coherent optical receivers with digital filters can mitigate the impairments in optical transmission system. In this paper, an adaptive filter employing NLMS algorithm is developed for chromatic dispersion compensation in a 112-Gbit/s PDM-QPSK coherent communication system. The performance of the adaptive filter is analyzed by comparing with present digital filters .

Nyckelord
Coherent communication, Digital compensation, NLMS algorithm, Optical transmission systems, Adaptive algorithms, Adaptive filtering, Adaptive filters, Chromatic dispersion, Communication systems, Electric filters, Quadrature phase shift keying, Light transmission
Nationell ämneskategori
Atom- och molekylfysik och optik Telekommunikation
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-35420 (URN)2-s2.0-77949413923 (Scopus ID)978-155752877-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
2009 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, ACP 2009; Shanghai; China; 2 November 2009 through 6 November 2009
Anmärkning

QC 20110629

Tillgänglig från: 2011-06-29 Skapad: 2011-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-10-14Bibliografiskt granskad
10. Phase noise mitigation in coherent transmission system using a pilot carrier
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Phase noise mitigation in coherent transmission system using a pilot carrier
Visa övriga...
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: Optical Transmission Systems, Subsystems, and Technologies IX / [ed] Xiang Liu, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we investigate the phase noise elimination employing an optical pilot carrier in the high speed coherent transmission system considering the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). The numerical simulations are performed in a 28-Gsymbol/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) coherent system with a polarization multiplexed pilot carrier. The carrier phase estimation is implemented by the one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) filter and the differential phase detection, respectively. Simulation results demonstrate that the application of the optical pilot carrier is very effective for the intrinsic laser phase noise cancellation, while is less efficient for the EEPN mitigation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2011
Serie
SPIE Proceedings, ISSN 0277-786X ; 8309
Nationell ämneskategori
Telekommunikation Atom- och molekylfysik och optik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-82142 (URN)10.1117/12.904038 (DOI)000298882200024 ()2-s2.0-84862946883 (Scopus ID)9780819489579 (ISBN)
Konferens
ACP 2011, Shanghai, China, 13-16 November 2011
Anmärkning
QC 20120214Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-11 Skapad: 2012-02-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-05-28Bibliografiskt granskad

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