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Neutron emission from beryllium reactions in JET deuterium plasmas with 3He minority
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Fysiska sektionen, Institutionen för fysik och astronomi, Tillämpad kärnfysik.
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2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion, ISSN 0029-5515, E-ISSN 1741-4326, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 045005-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent fast ion studies at JET involve ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating tuned to minority He-3 in cold deuterium plasmas, with beryllium evaporation in the vessel prior to the session. During the experiments, the high-resolution neutron spectrometer TOFOR was used to study the energy spectrum of emitted neutrons. Neutrons of energies up to 10MeV, not consistent with the neutron energy spectrum expected from d(d,n)He-3 reactions, were observed. In this paper, we interpret these neutrons as a first-time observation of a Be-9(He-3, n)C-11 neutron spectrum in a tokamak plasma, a conclusion based on a consistent analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations. Be-9(a, n)C-12 and Be-9(p, n)B-9 reactions are also simulated for p and a fusion products from d(He-3, a) p reactions; these two-step processes are seen to contribute on a level of about 10% of the single-step process in Be-9(He-3, n) C-11. Contributions to the total neutron yield from the Be-9(3He, n)C-11 reaction are found to be in the range 13 +/- 3 to 57 +/- 5%. We demonstrate how TOFOR can be used to simultaneously (i) probe the deuterium distribution, providing reliable measurements of the bulk deuterium temperature, here in the range 3.2 +/- 0.4 to 6.3 +/- 1.0 keV and (ii) provide an estimate of the beryllium concentration (in the range 0.48 +/- 0.17 to 6.4 +/- 1.7% of n(e) assuming T-3He = 300 keV). The observation of Be-9 related neutrons is relevant in view of the upcoming installation of a beryllium-coated ITER-like wall on JET and for ITER itself. An important implication is possible neutron-induced activation of the ITER vessel during the low-activation phase with ICRF heating tuned to minority He-3 in hydrogen plasmas.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2010. Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 045005-
Nyckelord [en]
PACS codes: 29.30.Hs, 29.25.Dz, 52.55.-s, 52.55.Fa, 25.55.-e, 52.55.Pi
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Forskningsämne
Fysik med inriktning mot tillämpad kärnfysik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-114040DOI: 10.1088/0029-5515/50/4/045005ISI: 000276475600009OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-114040DiVA, id: diva2:292658
Tillgänglig från: 2010-02-08 Skapad: 2010-02-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Fusion Plasma Observations at JET with the TOFOR Neutron Spectrometer: Instrumental Challenges and Physics Results
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fusion Plasma Observations at JET with the TOFOR Neutron Spectrometer: Instrumental Challenges and Physics Results
2010 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The neutron spectrometer TOFOR was installed at JET in 2005 for high-rate observation of neutrons from reactions between two deuterium (D) ions. Neutron spectrometry as a fusion plasma diagnostic technique is invoked to obtain information about the velocity states of fusion fuel ions. Based on neutron spectrometry data, conclusions can be drawn on the efficiency of plasma heating schemes as well as optimization of fuel ion confinement. The quality of TOFOR analysis is found to depend on how well the instrument response function is known; discriminator threshold levels, detector time alignment and electronics broadening are identified as crucial issues.

About 19 percent of the neutrons observed with TOFOR have scattered off the JET vessel wall or other structures in the line-of-sight before reaching the instrument, as established through simulations and measurements. A method has been developed to take these neutrons into account in the analysis. TOFOR measurements of fast deuterium distributions are seen to agree with distributions deduced from NPA data, obtained based on an entirely different principle. This serves as validation of the modeling and analysis.

Extraordinary statistics in the TOFOR measurements from JET pulses heated with 3rd harmonic RF heating on D beams allow for study of instabilities using neutron emission spectrometry. At ITER, similar studies should be possible on a more regular basis due to higher neutron rates.

Observations of neutrons from Be+3He reactions in the TOFOR spectrum from D plasmas heated with fundamental RF tuned to minority 3He raise the question of beryllium neutrons at JET after installation of the ITER-like wall, and at ITER, with beryllium as the plasma facing component. This is especially important for the first few years of ITER operation, where the machine will not yet have been certified as a nuclear facility and should be run in zero-activation mode.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2010. s. 110
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 715
Nyckelord
Fusion, Plasma diagnostics, Neutron Spectrometry, TOFOR, JET, ITER, time-of-flight, plasma heating
Nationell ämneskategori
Subatomär fysik
Forskningsämne
Tillämpad kärnfysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-114077 (URN)978-91-554-7724-0 (ISBN)
Disputation
2010-03-26, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2010-03-04 Skapad: 2010-02-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-06-08Bibliografiskt granskad

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