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A GIS-based landscape analysis of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för samhälls- och livsvetenskaper, Avdelningen för biologi. (Biologi)
2009 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

In boreal catchments, stream water chemistry is influenced and controlled by several landscape factors. The influence of spatially distributed variables is in turn dependent on the hydrological scale. Headwater streams have larger variability of water chemistry, and thus together represent a large biodiversity, and therefore need to be monitored in official environmental assessments. One objective of this study was, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), to analyse co-variation between landscape variables and water chemistry and to determine which of the landscape variables have a major influence on the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in headwater streams. Another objective was to find a simple method for predicting sources of DOC, using official map data and publically available GIS applications.

Totally 85 headwater catchments (0.1-4 km2) in the county of Värmland, western south Sweden, were used in the study. Water chemistry was analysed for water sampled at low, medium and high flows, and landscape variables were extracted from official map data sources: topographic maps, a digital elevation model (DEM, 50 m grid), and vegetation data. Statistical analyses showed that topography (mean slope and mean topographic wetness index (TWI)) and wetland cover often correlated well with DOC in headwater catchments. Official map data could satisfactorily extract landscape variables (mean slope, mean TWI) that were useful in predicting stream water chemistry (DOC).

A high-resolution elevation model, which was generated by interpolation of photogrammetric data, was used to calculate and evaluate two different wetness indices and their ability to predict the occurrence of wetlands in six catchments of different sizes and topography. The SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index (SWI) gave substantially better results than the TWI. The effects of resolution of DEMs on calculations of the SWI were investigated using 5, 10, 25 and 50 m grids. The results showed that SWI values increased with increasing cell size. The near linear increment of mean values for resolutions 10-50 m suggests a independence of terrain type and catchment size, which supported previous findings that indicated that mean slope and mean wetness index calculated from coarse elevation models may be used for prediction of DOC in headwater streams.

 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet , 2009. , s. 49
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2009:38
Nyckelord [en]
boreal forests, wetlands, vegetation types, headwater streams, catchment hydrology, streamwater chemistry, DOC, GIS, terrain analysis, DEM, slope, wetness index, TWI
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-2925ISBN: 978-91-7063-206-8 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-2925DiVA, id: diva2:113724
Disputation
2009-10-02, Geijersalen, 12A138, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, 13:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-24 Skapad: 2008-10-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-10-04Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Spatial variation of wetlands and flux of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Spatial variation of wetlands and flux of dissolved organic carbon in boreal headwater streams
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Hydrological Processes, ISSN 0885-6087, E-ISSN 1099-1085, nr 22, s. 1965-1975Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to investigate the relation between water chemistry and functional landscape elements, spatial data sets of characteristics for 68 small (0·2–1·5 km2) boreal forest catchments in western central Sweden were analysed in a geographical information system (GIS). The geographic data used were extracted from official topographic maps. Water sampled four times at different flow situations was analysed chemically. This paper focuses on one phenomenon that has an important influence on headwater quality in boreal, coniferous forest streams: generation and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). It is known that wetland cover (bogs and fens) in the catchment is a major source of DOC. In this study, a comparison was made between a large number of headwater catchments with varying spatial locations and areas of wetlands. How this variation, together with a number of other spatial variables, influences the DOC flux in the streamwater was analysed by statistical methods. There were significant, but not strong, correlations between the total percentages of wetland area and DOC flux measured at a medium flow situation, but not at high flow. Neither were there any significant correlations between the percentage of wetland area connected to streams, nor the percentage of wetland area within a zone 50 m from the stream and the DOC flux. There were, however, correlations between catchment mean slope and the DOC flux in all but one flow situations. This study showed that, considering geographical data retrieved from official sources, the topography of a catchment better explains the variation in DOC flux than the percentage and locations of distinct wetland areas. This emphasizes the need for high-resolution elevation models accurate enough to reveal the sources of DOC found in headwater streams.

Nyckelord
boreal, landscape, catchment hydrology, headwater streams, streamwater quality, DOC, wetland, GIS
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4672 (URN)10.1002/hyp.6779 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-14 Skapad: 2009-09-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Using official map data on topography, wetlands and vegetation cover for prediction of stream water chemistry in boreal headwater catchments
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Using official map data on topography, wetlands and vegetation cover for prediction of stream water chemistry in boreal headwater catchments
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, ISSN 1027-5606, E-ISSN 1607-7938, Vol. 13, s. 537-549Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4673 (URN)10.5194/hess-13-537-2009 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-15 Skapad: 2009-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Influence of wetland restoration on hydrology and water chemistry in a Swedish boreal catchment
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influence of wetland restoration on hydrology and water chemistry in a Swedish boreal catchment
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4674 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-15 Skapad: 2009-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Wetness indices as predictors of boreal wetlands
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Wetness indices as predictors of boreal wetlands
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Biologiska vetenskaper
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4675 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-15 Skapad: 2009-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
5. DEM resolution effects on SAGA wetness index in boreal forested catchments
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>DEM resolution effects on SAGA wetness index in boreal forested catchments
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Ekologi
Forskningsämne
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-4676 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2009-09-15 Skapad: 2009-09-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-10-05Bibliografiskt granskad

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