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Hot Corrosion Mechanism in Multi-Layer Suspension Plasma Sprayed Gd2Zr2O7 /YSZ Thermal Barrier Coatings in the Presence of V2O5 + Na2SO4
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
Treibacher Industrie AG, Althofen, Austria.
Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of thermal spray technology (Print), ISSN 1059-9630, E-ISSN 1544-1016, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 140-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the corrosion resistance of two-layer Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, three-layer dense Gd2Zr2O7/ Gd2Zr2O7/YSZ, and a reference single-layer YSZ coating with a similar overall top coat thickness of 300-320 µm. All the coatings were manufactured by suspension plasma spraying resulting in a columnar structure except for the dense layer. Corrosion tests were conducted at 900 °C for 8 h using V2O5 and Na2SO4 as corrosive salts at a concentration of approximately 4 mg/cm2. SEM investigations after the corrosion tests show that Gd2Zr2O7-based coatings exhibited lower reactivity with the corrosive salts and the formation of gadolinium vanadate (GdVO4), accompanied by the phase transformation of zirconia was observed. It is believed that the GdVO4 formation between the columns reduced the strain tolerance of the coating and also due to the fact that Gd2Zr2O7 has a lower fracture toughness value made it more susceptible to corrosion-induced damage. Furthermore, the presence of a relatively dense layer of Gd2Zr2O7 on the top did not improve in reducing the corrosion-induced damage. For the reference YSZ coating, the observed corrosion-induced damage was lower probably due to combination of more limited salt penetration, the SPS microstructure and superior fracture toughness of YSZ.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Springer, 2017. Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 140-149
Nyckelord [en]
gadolinium zirconatehot corrosionmulti-layer thermal barrier coatingssuspension plasma sprayingvanadium pentoxide + sodium sulfate
Nationell ämneskategori
Korrosionsteknik Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik Materialkemi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134375DOI: 10.1007/s11666-016-0486-5ISI: 000392060300014OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-134375DiVA, id: diva2:1072592
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: Vinnova in Sweden

Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-08 Skapad: 2017-02-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Failure mechanisms in APS and SPS thermal barrier coatings during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Failure mechanisms in APS and SPS thermal barrier coatings during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion
2017 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) are advanced material systems that are being used in the hot sections of gas turbines such as combustor, turbine blades, and vanes. The top ceramic coating in TBCs provides insulation against the hot gases and the intermediate metallic bond coat provides oxidation and corrosion resistance to the underlying turbine components.

Durability of thermal barrier coatings is very important for the overall performance of the gas turbine. TBCs can fail in several different ways and there is a combination of more than one failure mechanism in most situations. One of the most widely used TBC is atmospheric plasma sprayed (APS) yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Both the deposition technique and the TBC material have certain limitations. The main aim of this research is to study new TBC materials and/or new deposition techniques and compare with the conventional YSZ and understand their failure mechanisms during cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion.

Thermal cyclic oxidation of a newly developed high purity nano YSZ thermal barrier coating has been studied. Cross sectional analysis of exposed as well as completely failed samples showed a mixed-type failure caused by crack propagation parallel to the bond coat/top coat interface. The majority of the damage occurred towards the end of the coating life. A finite element model has been developed to study the probability of crack growth along different paths that leads to the final failure.

Hot corrosion mechanism in suspension plasma sprayed two-layer gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, three-layer dense gadolinium zirconate/gadolinium zirconate/YSZ, and a single-layer YSZ has been studied in the presence of sodium sulfate and vanadium pentoxide. The test results showed that gadolinium zirconate coatings were more susceptible to corrosion compared to YSZ coatings despite gadolinium zirconate coatings having lower reactivity with the corrosive salts.

Thermal cycling behavior of a high chromium bond coat has been studied. Cross-sectional analysis showed formation of sandwich type microstructure with chromium rich oxide and alumina as the top and the bottom layers.

Inter-diffusion of minor elements between different MCrAlY coatings – substrate systems has been studied using, diffusion simulation software, DICTRA. The simulation results showed that the diffusion of minor elements in the coatings is dependent on the rate of β phase depletion in the beginning. After the depletion of β phase there was no clear dependence of the coating composition on the diffusion of minor elements.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017. s. 45
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1770
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik Korrosionsteknik Materialkemi Metallurgi och metalliska material
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134379 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-134379 (DOI)9789176855942 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-03-10, A37, A-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-02-08 Skapad: 2017-02-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-02-27Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Thermal Barrier Coatings: Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Thermal Barrier Coatings: Failure Mechanisms and Life Prediction
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) use in the hot sections of gas turbine engine enables them to run at higher temperatures, and as a consequence, achieve higher thermal efficiency. For full operational exploitation of TBCs, understanding their failure and knowing the service life is essential. The broad objective of the current research is to study the failure mechanisms of new TBC materials and deposition techniques during corrosion and thermal cycling and to develop life models capable of predicting the final failure during thermal cycling.

Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) has constraints such as limited operation temperature, despite being the current industry standard. Pyrochlores of A2B2O7 type have been suggested as a potential replacement for YSZ and were studied in this work. Additionally, improvements to the conventional YSZ in the form of nanostructured YSZ were also explored. The requirement for the new deposition process comes from the fact that the existing low-cost deposition processes, like atmospheric plasma spray (APS), generally exhibit lower strain tolerance. A relatively new technique, suspension plasma spray (SPS), known to be promising with better strain tolerance, has been studied in this work.

At the gas turbine operating conditions, TBCs degrade and eventually fail. Common failure observed in gas turbines can be due to corrosion, thermal mismatch between the ceramic and the metallic layers, and bond coat oxidation during thermal cycling. SPS and APS TBCs were subjected to different test conditions to understand their corrosion behavior. A study on the multi-layered SPS TBCs in the presence of V2O5+Na2SO4 showed that YSZ based SPS coatings were less susceptible to corrosion damage compared to Gd2Zr2O7 SPS TBCs. A study on the influence of a sealing layer in multi-layered SPS TBCs in the presence of Na2SO4+NaCl showed that the sealing layer is ineffective if the material used for sealing is inert to the molten salts. A new study on the influence of corrosion, caused by a mixed-gas atmosphere, on the thermal cycling fatigue life of SPS TBCs was conducted. Results showed that corrosive products grew inside the top coat close to the bond coat/top coat interface along with accelerated growth of alumina. These, together, reduced the TCF life of corrosion exposed samples significantly. Finally, a study on the influence of salt concentration and temperature on a thin (dense) and a thick (porous) coating showed that thick and porous coatings have lower corrosion resistance than the thin and dense coatings. Additionally, a combination of low temperature and high salt concentration was observed to cause more damage.

Thermal cycling studies were done with the objective of understanding the failure mechanisms and developing a life model. A life model based on fracture mechanics approach has been developed by taking into account different crack growth paths during thermal cycling, sintering of the top coat, oxidation of the bond coat and the thermal mismatch stresses. Validation of such a life model by comparing to the experimental results showed that the model could predict the TCF life reasonably well at temperatures of 1100 °C or below. At higher temperatures, the accuracy of the model became worse. As a further development, a simplified crack growth model was established. This simplified model was shown to be capable of predicting the TCF life as well as the effect of hold times with good accuracy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. s. 57
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1975
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik Korrosionsteknik Materialkemi Metallurgi och metalliska material
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154777 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-154777 (DOI)9789176851388 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-03-13, C3, C-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-26 Skapad: 2019-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-04Bibliografiskt granskad

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