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The high dynamic range imaging pipeline: Tone-mapping, distribution, and single-exposure reconstruction
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Techniques for high dynamic range (HDR) imaging make it possible to capture and store an increased range of luminances and colors as compared to what can be achieved with a conventional camera. This high amount of image information can be used in a wide range of applications, such as HDR displays, image-based lighting, tone-mapping, computer vision, and post-processing operations. HDR imaging has been an important concept in research and development for many years. Within the last couple of years it has also reached the consumer market, e.g. with TV displays that are capable of reproducing an increased dynamic range and peak luminance.

This thesis presents a set of technical contributions within the field of HDR imaging. First, the area of HDR video tone-mapping is thoroughly reviewed, evaluated and developed upon. A subjective comparison experiment of existing methods is performed, followed by the development of novel techniques that overcome many of the problems evidenced by the evaluation. Second, a largescale objective comparison is presented, which evaluates existing techniques that are involved in HDR video distribution. From the results, a first open-source HDR video codec solution, Luma HDRv, is built using the best performing techniques. Third, a machine learning method is proposed for the purpose of reconstructing an HDR image from one single-exposure low dynamic range (LDR) image. The method is trained on a large set of HDR images, using recent advances in deep learning, and the results increase the quality and performance significantly as compared to existing algorithms.

The areas for which contributions are presented can be closely inter-linked in the HDR imaging pipeline. Here, the thesis work helps in promoting efficient and high-quality HDR video distribution and display, as well as robust HDR image reconstruction from a single conventional LDR image.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. , s. 132
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1939
Nyckelord [en]
high dynamic range imaging, tone-mapping, video tone-mapping, HDR video encoding, HDR image reconstruction, inverse tone-mapping, machine learning, deep learning
Nationell ämneskategori
Datorseende och robotik (autonoma system)
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147843DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-147843ISBN: 9789176853023 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-147843DiVA, id: diva2:1206025
Disputation
2018-06-08, Domteatern, Visualiseringscenter C, Kungsgatan 54, Campus Norrköping, Norrköping, 09:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-15 Skapad: 2018-05-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. A comparative review of tone-mapping algorithms for high dynamic range video
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A comparative review of tone-mapping algorithms for high dynamic range video
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 565-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Tone-mapping constitutes a key component within the field of high dynamic range (HDR) imaging. Its importance is manifested in the vast amount of tone-mapping methods that can be found in the literature, which are the result of an active development in the area for more than two decades. Although these can accommodate most requirements for display of HDR images, new challenges arose with the advent of HDR video, calling for additional considerations in the design of tone-mapping operators (TMOs). Today, a range of TMOs exist that do support video material. We are now reaching a point where most camera captured HDR videos can be prepared in high quality without visible artifacts, for the constraints of a standard display device. In this report, we set out to summarize and categorize the research in tone-mapping as of today, distilling the most important trends and characteristics of the tone reproduction pipeline. While this gives a wide overview over the area, we then specifically focus on tone-mapping of HDR video and the problems this medium entails. First, we formulate the major challenges a video TMO needs to address. Then, we provide a description and categorization of each of the existing video TMOs. Finally, by constructing a set of quantitative measures, we evaluate the performance of a number of the operators, in order to give a hint on which can be expected to render the least amount of artifacts. This serves as a comprehensive reference, categorization and comparative assessment of the state-of-the-art in tone-mapping for HDR video.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
WILEY, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139637 (URN)10.1111/cgf.13148 (DOI)000404474000048 ()
Konferens
38th Annual Conference of the European-Association-for-Computer-Graphics (EUROGRAPHICS)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) [IIS11-0081]; Linkoping University Center for Industrial Information Technology (CENIIT); Swedish Research Council through the Linnaeus Environment CADICS

Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-16 Skapad: 2017-08-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15
2. Evaluation of Tone Mapping Operators for HDR-Video
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of Tone Mapping Operators for HDR-Video
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 32, nr 7, s. 275-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Eleven tone-mapping operators intended for video processing are analyzed and evaluated with camera-captured and computer-generated high-dynamic-range content. After optimizing the parameters of the operators in a formal experiment, we inspect and rate the artifacts (flickering, ghosting, temporal color consistency) and color rendition problems (brightness, contrast and color saturation) they produce. This allows us to identify major problems and challenges that video tone-mapping needs to address. Then, we compare the tone-mapping results in a pair-wise comparison experiment to identify the operators that, on average, can be expected to perform better than the others and to assess the magnitude of differences between the best performing operators.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Wiley, 2013
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104135 (URN)10.1111/cgf.12235 (DOI)000327310800029 ()
Projekt
VPS
Tillgänglig från: 2014-02-07 Skapad: 2014-02-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Real-time noise-aware tone mapping
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Real-time noise-aware tone mapping
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Graphics, ISSN 0730-0301, E-ISSN 1557-7368, ISSN 0730-0301, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 198:1-198:15, artikel-id 198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Real-time high quality video tone mapping is needed for manyapplications, such as digital viewfinders in cameras, displayalgorithms which adapt to ambient light, in-camera processing,rendering engines for video games and video post-processing. We propose a viable solution for these applications by designing a videotone-mapping operator that controls the visibility of the noise,adapts to display and viewing environment, minimizes contrastdistortions, preserves or enhances image details, and can be run inreal-time on an incoming sequence without any preprocessing. To ourknowledge, no existing solution offers all these features. Our novelcontributions are: a fast procedure for computing local display-adaptivetone-curves which minimize contrast distortions, a fast method for detailenhancement free from ringing artifacts, and an integrated videotone-mapping solution combining all the above features.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2015
Nyckelord
Tone mapping, high dynamic range video, display algorithms
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi) Mediateknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122681 (URN)10.1145/2816795.2818092 (DOI)000363671200035 ()
Konferens
SIGGRAPH Aisa 2015
Projekt
VPS
Forskningsfinansiär
Stiftelsen för strategisk forskning (SSF)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-14 Skapad: 2015-11-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15
4. A HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE VIDEO CODEC OPTIMIZED BY LARGE-SCALE TESTING
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE VIDEO CODEC OPTIMIZED BY LARGE-SCALE TESTING
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2016 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON IMAGE PROCESSING (ICIP), IEEE , 2016, s. 1379-1383Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

While a number of existing high-bit depth video compression methods can potentially encode high dynamic range (HDR) video, few of them provide this capability. In this paper, we investigate techniques for adapting HDR video for this purpose. In a large-scale test on 33 HDR video sequences, we compare 2 video codecs, 4 luminance encoding techniques (transfer functions) and 3 color encoding methods, measuring quality in terms of two objective metrics, PU-MSSIM and HDR-VDP-2. From the results we design an open source HDR video encoder, optimized for the best compression performance given the techniques examined.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2016
Serie
IEEE International Conference on Image Processing ICIP, ISSN 1522-4880
Nyckelord
High dynamic range (HDR) video; HDR video coding; perceptual image metrics
Nationell ämneskategori
Signalbehandling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134106 (URN)10.1109/ICIP.2016.7532584 (DOI)000390782001093 ()978-1-4673-9961-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
23rd IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-22 Skapad: 2017-01-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15
5. HDR image reconstruction from a single exposure using deep CNNs
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>HDR image reconstruction from a single exposure using deep CNNs
Visa övriga...
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Graphics, ISSN 0730-0301, E-ISSN 1557-7368, Vol. 36, nr 6, artikel-id 178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Camera sensors can only capture a limited range of luminance simultaneously, and in order to create high dynamic range (HDR) images a set of different exposures are typically combined. In this paper we address the problem of predicting information that have been lost in saturated image areas, in order to enable HDR reconstruction from a single exposure. We show that this problem is well-suited for deep learning algorithms, and propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) that is specifically designed taking into account the challenges in predicting HDR values. To train the CNN we gather a large dataset of HDR images, which we augment by simulating sensor saturation for a range of cameras. To further boost robustness, we pre-train the CNN on a simulated HDR dataset created from a subset of the MIT Places database. We demonstrate that our approach can reconstruct high-resolution visually convincing HDR results in a wide range of situations, and that it generalizes well to reconstruction of images captured with arbitrary and low-end cameras that use unknown camera response functions and post-processing. Furthermore, we compare to existing methods for HDR expansion, and show high quality results also for image based lighting. Finally, we evaluate the results in a subjective experiment performed on an HDR display. This shows that the reconstructed HDR images are visually convincing, with large improvements as compared to existing methods.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY, 2017
Nyckelord
HDR reconstruction; inverse tone-mapping; deep learning; convolutional network
Nationell ämneskategori
Mediateknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143943 (URN)10.1145/3130800.3130816 (DOI)000417448700008 ()
Konferens
10th ACM SIGGRAPH Conference and Exhibition on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques in Asia
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University Center for Industrial Information Technology (CENIIT); Swedish Science Council [2015-05180]; Wallenberg Autonomous Systems Program (WASP)

Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-29 Skapad: 2017-12-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-05-15

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