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Advancing Models of Privacy Decision Making: Exploring the What & How of Privacy Behaviours
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för matematik och datavetenskap (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0001-7384-4552
2018 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

People's decisions do not happen in a vacuum; there are multiple factors that may affect them. There are external determinants, such as cost/benefit calculation of decision outcomes. There are also internal factors, such as attitudes, personality, emotions, age, and nationality. Frequently, the latter have a final say on the decision at hand, and similar determinants are triggered during the digital interaction when people make decisions about their privacy.

The current digital privacy landscape is filled with recurring security breaches and leaks of personal information collected by online service providers. Growing dependency on Internet-connected devices and increasing privacy risks prompted policy makers to protect individuals' right to privacy. In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to provide adequate information about their data collection and processing practices to users, to increase privacy awareness and enable better decision making. Regardless, currently there is no sufficient, usable technology, which could help people make improved privacy decisions, decreasing over-disclosure and oversharing. Hence, multidisciplinary researchers aim at developing new privacy-enhancing solutions. To define such solutions and successfully convey data provision and processing practices, potential risks, or harms resulting from information disclosure, it is crucial to understand cognitive processes underpinning privacy decisions.

In this thesis, we examine privacy decisions and define factors that influence them. We investigate the attitude-behaviour relationship and identify privacy concerns affecting perceptions of privacy. Additionally, we examine factors influencing information sharing, such as emotional arousal and personality traits. Our results demonstrate that there is a relationship between privacy concerns and behaviours, and that simplified models of behaviour are insufficient to predict privacy decisions. Our findings show that internal factors, such as nationality and culture, emotional arousal, and individual characteristics, affect privacy decisions. Based on our findings, we conclude that future models of privacy should incorporate such determinants. Further, we postulate that privacy user interfaces must become more flexible and personalised than the current solutions.

Abstract [en]

Growing dependency on Internet-connected devices and increasing privacy risks prompted policymakers to protect individuals’ right to privacy. In Europe, the General Data Protection Regulation requires companies to provide users with adequate information about data collection and processing practices to increase privacy awareness and enable better decisions. Hence, multidisciplinary researchers aim at developing new privacy-enhancing solutions. However, to develop such solutions it is crucial to understand cognitive processes underpinning privacy decisions.

This thesis objective is to investigate privacy behaviours. We identify privacy concerns affecting perceptions of privacy and examine factors influencing information sharing. We show that simplified models of behaviour are insufficient predictors of privacy decisions, and that demographic characteristic, emotion and personality affect privacy attitudes and behaviours. Based on our findings we conclude that future models of privacy and designs of privacy user interfaces must incorporate such behavioural determinants.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Karlstads universitet, 2018. , s. 24
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 2018:51
Nyckelord [en]
Privacy, Attitudes & Behaviour, Modelling Behaviour, HCI, UI Design
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69974ISBN: 978-91-7063-891-6 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7063-986-9 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-69974DiVA, id: diva2:1259473
Presentation
2018-12-11, Sjöströmsalen, 1B 309, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-19 Skapad: 2018-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Is It Harmful?: Re-examining Privacy Concerns
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Is It Harmful?: Re-examining Privacy Concerns
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Privacy and Identity Management: The Smart Revolution / [ed] Hansen Marit., Kosta Eleni., Nai-Fovino Igor., Fischer-Hübner Simone, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, s. 59-75Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The increased popularity of interconnected devices, which we rely on when performing day-to-day activities expose people to various privacy harms. This paper presents findings from the empirical investigation of privacy concerns. The study revealed that people, regardless of their diversity, perceive privacy harms as generic and simplified models, not individually as suggested in Solove’s framework. Additionally, the results identified differences in privacy concerns related to information disclosure, protection behavior, and demographics. The findings may benefit privacy and system designers, ensuring that policies and digital systems match people’s privacy expectations, decreasing risks and harms.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017
Serie
IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology ; 526
Nyckelord
Privacy, Human factors, Attitudes, Decision making
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-68004 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-92925-5_5 (DOI)000444812600005 ()978-3-319-92924-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-92925-5 (ISBN)
Projekt
Privacy & Us (4961)
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horisont 2020
Tillgänglig från: 2018-06-26 Skapad: 2018-06-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-30Bibliografiskt granskad
2. “It’s shocking!": Analysing the impact and reactions to the A3: Android apps behaviour analyser
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>“It’s shocking!": Analysing the impact and reactions to the A3: Android apps behaviour analyser
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Data and Applications Security and Privacy XXXII / [ed] Florian Kerschbaum, Stefano Paraboschi, Basel, Switzerland: Springer, 2018, s. 198-215Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The lack of privacy awareness in smartphone ecosystems prevents users from being able to compare apps in terms of privacy and from making informed privacy decisions. In this paper we analysed smartphone users’ privacy perceptions and concerns based on a novel privacy enhancing tool called Android Apps Behaviour Analyser (A3). The A3 tool enables user to behaviourally analyse the privacy aspects of their installed apps and notifies about potential privacy invasive activities. To examine the capabilities of A3 we designed a user study. We captured and contrasted privacy concern and perception of 52 participants, before and after using our tool. The results showed that A3 enables users to easily detect their smartphone app’s privacy violation activities. Further, we found that there is a significant difference between users’ privacy concern and expectation before and after using A3 and the majority of them were surprised to learn how often their installed apps access personal resources. Overall, we observed that the A3 tool was capable to influence the participants’ attitude towards protecting their privacy.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Basel, Switzerland: Springer, 2018
Serie
Lecture Notes in Computer Science ; 10980
Nyckelord
Android, Permission, Privacy, Privacy behaviour, Privacy concern, Smartphone ecosystems, Behavioral research, Data privacy, Ecosystems, Smartphones, Android apps, Privacy aspects, Privacy awareness, Privacy concerns, Privacy violation, Smartphone app, Android (operating system)
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69079 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-95729-6_13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85050549614 (Scopus ID)9783319957289 (ISBN)
Konferens
32nd Annual IFIP WG 11.3 Conference, DBSec 2018, Bergamo, Italy, July 16–18, 2018, Proceedings
Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-05 Skapad: 2018-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-01Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Emotional Privacy: Explaining Privacy Behaviours with Affect and Personality Traits
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Emotional Privacy: Explaining Privacy Behaviours with Affect and Personality Traits
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-69973 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-29 Skapad: 2018-10-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Reaching Beyond Borders: Investigating Differences in Privacy Harms Concerns
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reaching Beyond Borders: Investigating Differences in Privacy Harms Concerns
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the CHI 2018 Workshop: Moving Beyond a One-Size Fits All Approach: Exploring Individual Differences in Privacy, 2018Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Are people worried about harms that may result from their privacy decisions? How can we improve privacy decisions, and make them more informed? In this short position pa- per, we present some of the findings from the quantitative study on privacy attitudes and behaviors. Further, we shift the attention to potential differences of privacy perceptions among representatives from various demographics. We hope to start the discussion about a necessity to enrich privacy research and include cultural factors, to ensure in- clusion and enhance digital privacy.

Nyckelord
Privacy harms; Attitude; Behavior; Culture; Decision-making.
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Forskningsämne
Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-67410 (URN)
Konferens
CHI 2018 Workshop "Moving Beyond a One-Size Fits All Approach: Exploring Individual Differences in Privacy". Montreal, Canada.
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-30 Skapad: 2018-05-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-15Bibliografiskt granskad

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