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Weaknesses of Authentication in Quantum Cryptography and Strongly Universal Hash Functions
Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
2010 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Authentication is an indispensable part of Quantum Cryptography, which is an unconditionally secure key distribution technique based on the laws of nature. Without proper authentication, Quantum Cryptography is vulnerable to “man-in-the-middle” attacks. Therefore, to guarantee unconditional security of any Quantum Cryptographic protocols, the authentication used must also be unconditionally secure. The standard in Quantum Cryptography is to use theWegman-Carter authentication, which is unconditionally secure and is based on the idea of universal hashing.

In this thesis, we first investigate properties of a Strongly Universal hash function family to facilitate understanding the properties of (classical) authentication used in Quantum Cryptography. Then, we study vulnerabilities of a recently proposed authentication protocol intended to rule out a "man-in-the-middle" attack on Quantum Cryptography. Here, we point out that the proposed authentication primitive is not secure when used in a generic Quantum Cryptographic protocol. Lastly, we estimate the lifetime of authentication using encrypted tags when the encryption key is partially known. Under simplifying assumptions, we derive that the lifetime is linearly dependent on the length of the authentication key. Experimental results that support the theoretical results are also presented.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press , 2010. , s. 37
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1447
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57290ISBN: 978-91-7393-354-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-57290DiVA, id: diva2:324702
Veileder
Prosjekter
ICG QCTilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-16 Laget: 2010-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2020-03-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Special Properties of Strongly Universal2 Hash Functions Important in Quantum Cryptography
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Special Properties of Strongly Universal2 Hash Functions Important in Quantum Cryptography
2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: AIP Conference Proceedings, ISSN 0094-243X, Foundations of Probability and Physics—5, Växjö, augusti 2008, New York: American Institute of Physics , 2009, Vol. 1101, s. 289-293Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Secure message authentication is an important part of Quantum Key Distribution. In this paper we analyze special properties of a Strongly Universal2 hash function family, an understanding of which is important in the security analysis of the authentication used in Quantum Cryptography. We answer the following question: How much of Alices message does Eve need to influence so that the message along with its tag will give her enough information to create the correct tag for her message?

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
New York: American Institute of Physics, 2009
Emneord
Quantum cryptography, Quantum theory, Probability
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18738 (URN)10.1063/1.3109951 (DOI)
Konferanse
Foundations of Probability and Physics—5, Växjö, augusti 2008
Prosjekter
ICG QC
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-06-03 Laget: 2009-06-03 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31
2. Vulnerability of "A Novel Protocol-Authentication Algorithm Ruling out a Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Quantum Cryptography"
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Vulnerability of "A Novel Protocol-Authentication Algorithm Ruling out a Man-in-the-Middle Attack in Quantum Cryptography"
2009 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Quantum Information, ISSN 0219-7499, Vol. 7, nr 5, s. 1047-1052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we review and comment on "A novel protocol-authentication algorithm ruling out a man-in-the-middle attack in quantum cryptography" [M. Peev et al., Int. J. Quant. Inf. 3 (2005) 225]. In particular, we point out that the proposed primitive is not secure when used in a generic protocol, and needs additional authenticating properties of the surrounding quantum-cryptographic protocol.

Emneord
Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, authentication
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20405 (URN)10.1142/S0219749909005754 (DOI)
Prosjekter
ICG QC
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-09-08 Laget: 2009-09-07 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-15bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Lifetime of Authentication Using Encrypted Tags When the Encryption Key is Partially Known
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Lifetime of Authentication Using Encrypted Tags When the Encryption Key is Partially Known
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Quantum cryptography is an unconditionally secure key growing technique provided that an unconditionally secure authentication protocol is combined with it. This paper is about the study of the lifetime of a message authentication scheme, where a message to be authenticated is first hashed by a secret–but fixed–Strongly Universal hash function then the output is encrypted with a one-time-pad key to generate a tag for the message. If the onetime-pad is completely secret, then the lifetime is exponential in the tag length. If, however, the one-time-pad key is partially known in each authentication round, as is the case in practical quantum key distribution protocols, then the picture is different; because the adversary’s partial knowledge of the one-time-pad key in each authentication round contributes to his/her ability to identify the secret hash function. We estimate the lifetime of this type of authentication. Here the parameters are the length of the key identifying the secret hash function and the amount of knowledge that Eve has on the one-time-pad. A theoretical estimate is presented, along with experimental results that support it.

Emneord
Quantum cryptography, quantum key distribution, authentication, strongly universal hash functions, lifetime
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-57289 (URN)
Prosjekter
ICG QC
Tilgjengelig fra: 2010-06-16 Laget: 2010-06-16 Sist oppdatert: 2016-08-31

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