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Exploring C2 Capability and Effectiveness in Challenging Situations: Interorganizational Crisis Management, Military Operations and Cyber Defence
Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, FOI.
2019 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Modern societies are affected by various threats and hazards, including natural disasters, cyber-attacks, extreme weather events and inter-state conflicts. Managing these challenging situations requires immediate actions, suspension of ordinary procedures, decision making under uncertainty and coordinated action. In other words, challenging situations put high demands on the command and control (C2) capability. To strengthen the capability of C2, it is vital to identify the prerequisites for effective coordination and direction within the domain of interest. This thesis explores C2 capability and effectiveness in three domains: interorganizational crisis management, military command and control, and cyber defence operations. The thesis aims to answer three research questions: (1) What constitutes C2 capability? (2) What constitutes C2 effectiveness? and (3) How can C2 effectiveness be assessed? The work was carried out as two case studies and one systematic literature review. The main contributions of the thesis are the identification of perspectives of C2 capability in challenging situations and an overview of approaches to C2 effectiveness assessment. Based on the results of the three studies, six recurring perspectives of capability in the domains studied were identified: interaction (collaboration), direction and coordination, relationships, situation awareness, resilience and preparedness. In the domains there are differences concerning which perspectives that are most emphasized in order obtain C2 capability. C2 effectiveness is defined as the extent to which a C2 system is successful in achieving its intended result. The thesis discusses the interconnectedness of performance and effectiveness measures, and concludes that there is not a united view on the difference between measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. Different approaches to effectiveness assessment were identified, where assessment may be conducted based on one specific issue, in relation to a defined goal for a C2 function or using a more exploratory approach.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. , s. 43
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1836
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156151DOI: 10.3384/lic.diva-156151ISBN: 9789176850824 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-156151DiVA, id: diva2:1313288
Presentation
2019-06-14, Alan Turing, hus E, Campus Valla, Linköping, 10:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad

In the printed version is the permanent link to this publication incorrect. The link is changecd in the online version.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-05-27 Laget: 2019-05-02 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a changing world
2014 (engelsk)Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Assessing Command and Control Effectiveness: Dealing with a Changing World offers a description of the current state of Command and Control (C2) research in imperfect settings, showing how a research process should assess, analyse and communicate results to the development cycle of methods, work, manning and C2-technology. Special attention is given to the development of C2 research methods to meet the current and coming needs. The authors also look forward towards a future where effective assessment of C2 abilities are even more crucial, for instance in agile organisations.

The purpose of the C2 research is to improve the process and make it more effective while still saving time and money. Research methods have to be chosen carefully to be effective and simple, yet provide results of high quality. The methodological concerns are a major consideration when working under such circumstances. Furthermore, there is often a need for a swift iterative development cycle, and thus a demand to quickly deliver results from the research process. This book explains how field research experimentation can be quick, simple and effective, being able to draw valid conclusions even when sample sizes are small and resources are limited, collecting empirical data using measures and procedures that are minimally intrusive.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Farnham: Ashgate, 2014. s. 226
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117711 (URN)978-1-4724-3696-2 (ISBN)
Merknad

Contents

Forewords; Preface; Introduction, P. Berggren, S. Nählinder and E. Svensson; Analysing tactical cognitive systems: theories, models and methods, A. Norlander; Designing case studies using a systems analysis approach, P. Wikberg; Dynamic measures of effectiveness in command and control, E. Svensson and S. Nählinder; Organizational agility - an overview, B.J.E. Johansson and P.V. Pearce; Characteristics of command and control in response to emergencies and disasters, J. Trnka and R. Woltjer; Empirical studies of command and control centres at the Swedish Air Force, E. Svensson, C. Rencrantz, J. Marklund and P. Berggren; The advance of a valid and reliable tool for assessing shared understanding, P. Berggren; Evaluating the effectiveness of an armoured brigade staff, P. Thunholm, P. Berggren and P. Wikberg; Organizational effectiveness at the Kosovo Force headquarters: a case study, M. Granåsen and J. Marklund; Agility in command and control - functional models of cognition, B.J.E. Johansson; Conclusions, P. Berggren, S. Nählinder and E. Svensson; Index.

Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-05-07 Laget: 2015-05-07 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-27bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Measuring team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises: A cross-disciplinary case study
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Measuring team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises: A cross-disciplinary case study
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 121-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

In 2010, IT-security experts from northern European governments and organizations gathered to conduct the first of a series of NATO-led cyber-defense exercises in a pilot attempt of training cyber defense. To gain knowledge on how to assess team effectiveness in cyber-defense exercises, this case study investigates the role of behavioral assessment techniques as a complement to task-based performance measurement. The collected data resulted in a massive data set including system logs, observer reports, and surveys. Six different methods were compared for feasibility in assessing the teams’ performance, including automated availability check, exploratory sequential data analysis, and network intrusion detection system attack analysis. In addition, observer reports and surveys were used to collect aspects relating to team structures and processes, aiming to discover whether these aspects can explain differences in effectiveness. The crossdisciplinary approach and multiple metrics create possibilities to study not only the performance-related outcome of the exercise, but also why this result is obtained. The main conclusions found are (1) a combination of technical performance measurements and behavioral assessment techniques are needed to assess team effectiveness, and (2) cyber situation awareness is required not only for the defending teams, but also for the observers and the game control.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer London, 2016
Emneord
Cyber-defense exercise, Cyber SA, Performance assessment, Team cognition, Team effectiveness
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156502 (URN)10.1007/s10111-015-0350-2 (DOI)000368178300009 ()2-s2.0-84954360683 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-24 Laget: 2019-04-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-12-02bibliografisk kontrollert

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