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Atlantic salmon in regulated rivers: Migration, dam passage, and fish behavior
Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3098-0594
2016 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Hydropower dams block migration routes and disrupt longitudinal connectivity in rivers, thereby posing a threat to migratory fish species. Various fish passage solutions have been implemented to improve connectivity with varying success. A well-functioning passage solution must ensure safe and timely passage routes that are used by a substantial portion of the migrating fish. In this thesis, I report the results from telemetry studies where the behavior and survival of migrating Atlantic salmon spawners, post-spawners and smolts have been evaluated in relation to hydropower dam passage. I evaluate downstream passage performance at dams with no passage solutions in the River Klarälven, and with simple passage solutions in in the Winooski River. In the River Ätran, I study both upstream- and downstream passage performance at a dam with sophisticated passage solutions based on the best available technology. In addition, I have studied the survival and behavior of post-spawners and hatchery-released smolts.

A substantial portion of the spawners survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Most males migrated downstream in autumn following spawning, whereas females tended to stay in the river until spring. For hatchery-reared smolts, early release was associated with faster initiation of migration and higher survival compared to late release. Multiple dam passage resulted in high mortality for both smolts and kelts. For smolts, dam passage, even with simple passage solutions, was associated with substantial delay and mortality. High spill levels were linked to high survival and short delay for downstream migrating salmon. The best available passage solution, which consisted of a nature-like fishway and a low sloping intake rack to guide fish to a bypass, resulted in rapid passage of a large portion of the adult migrants.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Karlstad: Karlstads universitet, 2016. , s. 41
Serie
Karlstad University Studies, ISSN 1403-8099 ; 42
Emneord [en]
fish migration; fish passage; downstream migration; kelt; smolt
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46903ISBN: 978-91-7063-725-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kau-46903DiVA, id: diva2:1038779
Disputas
2016-12-09, Nyquistsalen 9C 203, Universitetsgatan 2, Karlstad, 10:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-11-15 Laget: 2016-10-19 Sist oppdatert: 2019-07-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Post-Spawning Survival and Downstream Passage of Landlocked Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in a Regulated River: Is There Potential for Repeat Spawning?
Vise andre…
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 32, nr 5, s. 1008-1017Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Repeat salmonid spawners may make large contributions to total recruitment and long term population stability. Despite their potential importance, relatively little is known about this phase of the life history for anadromous populations, and nothing has been reported for landlocked populations. Here, we studied post-spawning behaviour and survival of landlocked Atlantic salmon in relation to downstream dam passage in the River KlarÀlven, Sweden. Eight hydropower stations separate the feeding grounds in Lake VÀnern from the spawning grounds in the River KlarÀlven, and no measures to facilitate downstream migration are present in the river. Forty-nine percent of the salmon survived spawning and initiated downstream migration. Females and small fish had higher post-spawning survival than males and large fish. The post-spawners migrated downstream in autumn and spring and remained relatively inactive in the river during winter. Downstream migration speed in the free flowing part of the river was highly variable with a median of 9.30km/day. Most fish passed the first hydropower station via upward-opening spill gates after a median residence time in the forebay of 25min. However, no tagged fish survived passage of all eight hydropower stations to reach Lake VÀnern. This result underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of downstream migrating kelts.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Emneord
migration; kelt; multiple dam passage; telemetry; hydropower; gender difference
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-42458 (URN)10.1002/rra.2926 (DOI)000378715500018 ()2-s2.0-84931843504 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-05-23 Laget: 2016-05-23 Sist oppdatert: 2022-11-25bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Migratory delay leads to reduced passage success of Atlantic salmon smolts at a hydroelectric dam
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 707-718Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Passage of fish through hydropower dams is associated with mortality, delay, increased energy expenditure and migratory failure for migrating fish and the need for remedial measures for both upstream and downstream migration is widely recognised. A functional fish passage must ensure safe and timely passage routes that a substantial portion of migrating fish will use. Passage solutions must address not only the number or percentage of fish that successfully pass a barrier, but also the time it takes to pass. Here, we used radiotelemetry to study the functionality of a fish bypass for downstream-migrating wild-caught and hatchery-released Atlantic salmon smolts. We used time-to-event analysis to model the influence of fish characteristics and environmental variables on the rates of a series of events associated with dam passage. Among the modelled events were approach rate to the bypass entry zone, retention rates in both the forebay and the entry zone and passage rates. Despite repeated attempts, only 65% of the tagged fish present in the forebay passed the dam. Fish passed via the bypass (33%), via spill (18%) and via turbines (15%). Discharge was positively related to approach, passage and retention rates. We did not detect any differences between wild and hatchery fish. Even though individual fish visited the forebay and the entry zone on multiple occasions, most fish passed during the first exposures to these zones. This study underscores the importance of timeliness to passage success and the usefulness of time-to-event analysis for understanding factors governing passage performance.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Wiley-Blackwell, 2017
Emneord
downstream passage, fish passage, landlocked salmon, Salmo salar, smolt migration, nedströmspassage, fiskpassage, smolt, lax
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46897 (URN)10.1111/eff.12318 (DOI)000409505000019 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-19 Laget: 2016-10-19 Sist oppdatert: 2018-09-10bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Downstream migration and multiple dam passage by Atlantic salmon smolts
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2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: North American Journal of Fisheries Management, ISSN 0275-5947, E-ISSN 1548-8675, Vol. 4, nr 37, s. 816-828Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate behavior and survival of radio-tagged wild and hatchery-reared landlocked Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar smolts as they migrated past three hydropower dams equipped with fish bypass solutions in the Winooski River, Vermont. Among hatchery-reared smolts, those released early were more likely to initiate migration and did so after less delay than those released late. Once migration was initiated, however, the late-released hatchery smolts migrated at greater speeds. Throughout the river system, hatchery-reared fish performed similarly to wild fish. Dam passage rates varied between the three dams and was highest at the dam where unusually high spill levels occurred throughout the study period. Of the 50 fish that did migrate downstream, only 10% managed to reach the lake. Migration success was low despite the presence of bypass solutions, underscoring the need for evaluations of remedial measures; simply constructing a fishway is not synonymous with providing fish passage.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Emneord
SALAR SMOLTS; CHINOOK SALMON; FISH PASSAGE; JUVENILE SALMONIDS; DELAYED MORTALITY; COLUMBIA RIVER; SNAKE RIVER; HYDROPOWER SYSTEM; TRUTTA SMOLTS; K+ ATPASE
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46900 (URN)10.1080/02755947.2017.1327900 (DOI)000407192600012 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-19 Laget: 2016-10-19 Sist oppdatert: 2018-09-10bibliografisk kontrollert
4. Upstream and downstream passage of migrating adult Atlantic salmon: Remedial measures improve passage performance at a hydropower dam
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Upstream and downstream passage of migrating adult Atlantic salmon: Remedial measures improve passage performance at a hydropower dam
Vise andre…
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 102, s. 331-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2017
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-62914 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.02.055 (DOI)000399623700034 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-09-05 Laget: 2017-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-09-10bibliografisk kontrollert
5. Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Intake Approach and Dam Passage by Downstream-migrating Atlantic Salmon Kelts
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Rivers Research and Applications: an international journal devoted to river research and management, ISSN 1535-1459, E-ISSN 1535-1467, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 697-706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Studying fish behaviour at hydropower dams is needed to facilitate the design and improvement of fish passage solutions, but few studies have focused on Atlantic salmon kelts. Here, we used radio telemetry (n = 40, size range = 50–81 cm) and acoustic sonar to study kelt movements in the forebay as well as their dam passage survival and subsequent migration success past multiple dams. We also compare radio telemetry and acoustic sonar observations of fish behaviour and used acoustic sonar to measure the depth distribution of fish approaching the turbine intake zone. Passage success at the dam was 41%, and mortality was largely associated with turbine passage (62%). The two fish that passed via the spill gates survived and continued their downstream migration. At the dam, all but one radio-tagged kelt approached the intake zone shortly after arrival to the forebay, and sonar data showed that approaching fish were predominantly surface oriented (72%, 88% and 96% of the observations were less than 1, 2 and 3 m deep, respectively). Turbine passage rate from the intake zone was higher at night than at day, indicating that the lack of visual cues may reduce the barrier effect of the 70-mm conventional trash rack. Turbine passage rate also increased with increasing hydropower generation. The percentage of observed upstream movements away from the intake zone compared with the total number of observations was considerably greater in the radio telemetry data (41%) than in the sonar data (4%). Only one fish survived passage of all eight hydropower dams to reach the lake. This low-passage survival underscores the need for remedial measures to increase the survival of migrating kelts, and the fish's surface orientation as well as their rapid approach to the intake rack should be taken into account when designing such measures.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Biologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kau:diva-46902 (URN)10.1002/rra.3133 (DOI)000402840900006 ()
Merknad

Was published as manuscript in D. Nyquists thesis and had then the title "Intake approach and dam passage by landlocked Atlantic salmon kelts at a hydropower dam"

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-10-19 Laget: 2016-10-19 Sist oppdatert: 2018-09-10bibliografisk kontrollert

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