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An Experimental Setup with Alternating Current Capability for Evaluating Large Lithium-ion Batteries Cells
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6283-7661
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
Show others and affiliations
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords [en]
Alternating current, aging, battery testing, electric vehicles, GITT, HPPC, life cycle, lithium-ion batteries, ripple, SOC
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228024OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-228024DiVA, id: diva2:1206320
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-16 Created: 2018-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Interactions between battery and power electronics in an electric vehicle drivetrain
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between battery and power electronics in an electric vehicle drivetrain
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electric machine and power electronics in electric and hybrid electric vehicles inevitably cause AC harmonics on the vehicle's DC-link. These harmonics can be partially filtered out by large capacitors, which today are overdimensioned in order to protect the vehicle's battery pack. This is done as a precaution, since it is not known whether ripple-current has any harmful effect on Li-ion  cells.

We have measured and analyzed the ripple-current present in a hybrid electric bus, and found that a majority of the power was carried by frequencies in the range 100~Hz to 1~kHz. The single most energetic harmonic in this particular vehicle is believed to have been caused  by a misaligned resolver in the motor.

We have also designed and built an advanced experimental set-up in order to study the effect of ripple-current on Li-ion cells in the lab. The set-up can cycle up to 16 cells simultaneously, with currents of up to 50~A including a superimposed AC signal with a frequency of up to 2~kHz. The cells' temperatures are controlled by means of a climate chamber. The set-up also includes a sophisticated safety system which automatically acts to prevent dangerous situations before they arise.

Using this set-up we tested whether superimposing AC with a specific frequency improves the charging performance of Li-ion cells. Statistical analysis found no improvement over regular DC cycling, and a physics-based model explains the experimental findings.

We have also investigated whether ripple-current accelerates the aging of Li-ion cells. Twelve cells were either calendar or cycle  aged for one year, with some cells being exposed to superimposed AC with a frequency of 1~Hz, 100~Hz, or 1~kHz. No effect was observed on any of capacity fade, power fade, or aging mechanism.

Finally we also tested whether it is possible to heat Li-ion cells from low temperatures using only AC. We propose a method for AC heating of Li-ion cells, and open the discussion for generalizing the technique to larger battery packs.

In conclusion, ripple-current has negligible effect on Li-ion cells, except for heating them slightly.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 74
Series
TRITA-CBH-FOU ; 2018:27
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering; Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228030 (URN)978-91-7729-837-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, E2, E-huset, huvudbyggnaden, våningsplan 3, Lindstedtsvägen 3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20180518

Available from: 2018-05-18 Created: 2018-05-17 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and Analysis of the Interaction of Batteries and Power Electronic Converters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Analysis of the Interaction of Batteries and Power Electronic Converters
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with the interaction of batteries and power electronic converters in automotive applications. Even if the additional heating caused by (unwanted) alternating currents is disregarded, there has been a concern that alternating currents can be harmful for batteries. For that reason, alternating currents can be filtered using capacitors and/or by sophisticated hardware. In this work, the concern whether alternating currents are harmful to batteries is studied particular focus on large, lithium-ion cells for use in automotive applications.First, the harmonic content in the battery current of two, commercial hybrid-electric busses were measured and analysed. The most prominent harmonic had a peak magnitude higher than 10% of the maximum direct current level (160 A) arising at frequencies below 150 Hz. The maximum amplitude detected of a harmonic caused by the voltage source converter’s switching action was around 10 A and occurred at a frequency of 2 kHz. An experimental setup with alternating current capability for evaluating large lithium-ion cells has been designed and built. Twelve lithium-ion cells were cycled at a rate if 1 C during approximately 2000 cycles (corresponding to approximately one year). The cells were cycled with an superimposed alternating current of 1 Hz, 100 Hz, or 1 kHz while the rest of the cells were cycled with direct current (only), injected with alternating current (only), or no current at all (calendar aging). No negative effects caused by the alternating current was identified in terms of capacity fade and power fade for the tested lithium-ion cells. A comparison between sinusoidal current-ripple charging and conventional constant-current constant-voltage charging was also carried out. Three lithium-ion cells were cycled (ten times) with different ac currents superimposed during charge. The results were analyzed statistically and no significant improvements in terms of charging time or charging efficiency were observed in any of the charging tests using an superimposed ac current. The injection of alternating currents into batteries for heating purposes has also been studied and a control method for battery heating using an ac current was proposed. The proposed controller is applicable regardless of the LIB’s subsequent impedance nature (capacitive, inductive or resistive). Further, a design process for the generation of magnified alternating currents in dc-dc converters was presented. By matching the switching frequency with the frequency where the LCL filter and the battery resonate, the current flowing in the semiconductors and the switching frequency could be reduced. In a small experimental setup using a single lithium-ion cell, using an LCL-resonant circuit and a full bridges witch arrangement, magnifications of up to 15.7 were reached. This allowed for a loss reduction in the semiconductors of up to 75%, when compared to an equivalent dc-dc converter enabled to produce anon-magnified ac current. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 184
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:45
Keywords
Alternating current, aging, electric vehicles, harmonics, lithium-ion batteries, power converter, resonant filters, ripple, temperature control.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251665 (URN)978-91-7873-187-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-05, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190517

Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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