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Flexible spin-lock model for resource sharing in multiprocessor real-time systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0474-2904
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1687-930X
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands .ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6234-5117
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6132-7945
2014 (English)In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Embedded Syst., SIES, 2014, 41-51 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Various approaches can be utilized upon resource locking for mutually exclusive resource access in multiprocessor platforms. So far two conventional approaches exist for dealing with tasks that are blocked on a global resource in a multi-processor platform. Either the blocked task performs a busy wait, i.e. spins, at the highest priority level until the resource is released, or it is suspended. Although both approaches provide mutually exclusive access to resources, they can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this paper, we propose a general spin-based model for resource sharing in multiprocessor platforms in which the priority of the blocked tasks during spinning can be selected arbitrarily. Moreover, we provide the analysis for two selected spin-lock priorities and we show by means of a general comparison as well as specific examples that these solutions may provide a better performance for higher priority tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. 41-51 p.
Series
Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2014
Keyword [en]
Locks (fasteners), Real time systems, Access to resources, Better performance, Conventional approach, Global resources, Multi-processor platforms, Resource access, Resource locking, Resource sharing, Multiprocessing systems
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25907DOI: 10.1109/SIES.2014.6871185ISI: 000345746200007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84906688738ISBN: 9781479940233 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-25907DiVA: diva2:746374
Conference
9th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2014, 18 June 2014 through 20 June 2014, Pisa
Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Lock-Based Resource Sharing in Real-Time Multiprocessor Platforms
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lock-Based Resource Sharing in Real-Time Multiprocessor Platforms
2014 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Embedded systems are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory can be limited for tasks in the system. Therefore, techniques that enable an efficient usage of such resources are of great importance.

In the industry, typically large and complex software systems are divided into smaller parts (applications) where each part is developed independently. Migration towards multiprocessor platforms has become inevitable from an industrial perspective. Due to such migration and to efficient use of system resources, these applications eventually may be integrated on a shared multiprocessor platform. In order to facilitate the integration phase of the applications on a shared platform, the timing and resource requirements of each application can be provided in an interface when the application is developed. The system integrator can benefit from such provided information in the interface of each application to ease the integration process. In this thesis, we have provided the resource and timing requirements of each application in their interfaces for applications that may need several processors to be allocated on when they are developed.

Although many scheduling techniques have been studied for multiprocessor systems, these techniques are usually based on the assumption that tasks are independent, i.e. do not share resources other than the processors. This assumption is typically not true. In this thesis, we provide an extension to such systems to handle sharing of resources other than processor among tasks. Two traditional approaches exist for multiprocessor systems to schedule tasks on processors. A recent scheduling approach for multiprocessors has combined the two traditional approaches and achieved a hybrid more efficient approach compared to the two previous one. Due to the complex nature of this scheduling approach the conventional approaches for resource sharing could not be used straight forwardly. In this thesis, we have modified resource sharing approaches such that they can be used in such hybrid scheduling systems. A second concern is that enabling resource sharing in the systems can cause unpredictable delays and variations in response time of tasks which can degrade system performance. Therefore, it is of great significance to improve the resource handling techniques to reduce the effect of imposed delays caused by resource sharing in a multiprocessor platform. In this thesis we have proposed alternative techniques for resource handling that can improve system performance for special setups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 189
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26532 (URN)978-91-7485-178-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2014-12-11, Lambda, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-11-12 Created: 2014-11-11 Last updated: 2014-12-03Bibliographically approved
2. Lock-Based Resource Sharing for Real-Time Multiprocessors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lock-Based Resource Sharing for Real-Time Multiprocessors
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Embedded systems are widely used in the industry and are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory might be limited in the system. Hence, techniques that can enable an efficient usage of processor bandwidths in such systems are of great importance. Locked-based resource sharing protocols are proposed as a solution to overcome resource limitation by allowing the available resources in the system to be safely shared. In recent years, due to a dramatic enhancement in the functionality of systems, a shift from single-core processors to multi-core processors has become inevitable from an industrial perspective to tackle the raised challenges due to increased system complexity. However, the resource sharing protocols are not fully mature for multi-core processors. The two classical multi-core processor resource sharing protocols, spin-based and suspension-based protocols, although providing mutually exclusive access to resources, can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this thesis we enhance the performance of resource sharing protocols for partitioned scheduling, which is the de-facto scheduling standard for industrial real-time multi-core processor systems such as in AUTOSAR, in terms of timing and memory requirements.

 

A new scheduling approach uses a resource efficient hybrid approach combining both partitioned and global scheduling where the partitioned scheduling is used to schedule the major number of tasks in the system. In such a scheduling approach applications with critical task sets use partitioned scheduling to achieve higher level of predictability. Then the unused bandwidth on each core that is remained from partitioning is used to schedule less critical task sets using global scheduling to achieve higher system utilization. These scheduling schema however lacks a proper resource sharing protocol since the existing protocols designed for partitioned and global scheduling cannot be directly applied due to the complex hybrid structure of these scheduling frameworks. In this thesis we propose a resource sharing solution for such a complex structure. Further, we provide the blocking bounds incurred to tasks under the proposed protocols and enhance the schedulability analysis, which is an essential requirement for real-time systems, with the provided blocking bounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 247
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-37215 (URN)978-91-7485-361-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-12-19, Kappa, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-11-07 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved

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