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The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
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2013 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 495, no 7441, 360-364 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The domestication of dogs. was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated(1-5) and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencimg of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication(6). Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 495, no 7441, 360-364 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198620DOI: 10.1038/nature11837ISI: 000316650500041OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-198620DiVA: diva2:617238
Available from: 2013-04-22 Created: 2013-04-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Detecting Signatures of Selection within the Dog Genome
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detecting Signatures of Selection within the Dog Genome
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Deciphering the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity is one of the central aims of biological research. Domestic animals provide a unique opportunity for making substantial progress towards this goal. Intense positive selection has lead to a rich reservoir of phenotypes and underlying genotypes that can be interrogated using genetic tools to gain insight into the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity.

The dog is the most phenotypically diverse mammal. It was domesticated from the grey wolf 11-30,000 years ago. After domestication, a period of intense breeding has lead to the massive phenotypic diversity seen amongst dog breeds today. These two phases of strong positive selection at domestication and at breed creation are likely to have left their signature on the genome. In this thesis, we have analysed genome-wide patterns to detect genomic regions involved in selection in both of these phases. We used whole genome sequences from 60 dogs and 12 wolves, to detect dog domestication selective sweeps. We find evidence for genes involved in memory formation, neurotransmission and starch digestion.

To decipher the genetic signals underlying breed diversity, we used genome-wide genotype data from >170,000 SNPs in 509 dogs from 46 different breeds. We find evidence for genes under selection in many breeds, and only a few breeds. In addition, we identify novel sweeps underlying morphology and behavior.

Recombination can influence the configuration of alleles present on a haplotype, and can thus increase or decrease the efficiency of selection. The PRDM9 protein has been shown to be important for determining recombination hotspot locations in humans and other mammals, but of all the mammals studied so far the dog is the only one to have a non-functional PRDM9.

We used the genome-wide genotype data described above to characterise the fine scale recombination map in dogs. We find that recombination hotspots exist in dogs despite the absence of PRDM9. Moreover, we show that these hotspots are enriched for GC rich peaks and that these peaks are getting stronger over time. Our results show that the absence of PRDM9 has lead to the stabilisation of the recombination landscape in dogs.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. 38 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 938
Keyword
dog, evolution, domestication, PRDM9, recombination, positive selection, selective sweep
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-209335 (URN)978-91-554-8783-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-12-04, B42, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 09:00 (English)
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Available from: 2013-11-13 Created: 2013-10-17 Last updated: 2014-01-23

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Axelsson, ErikRatnakumar, AbhiramiArendt, Maja LouiseWebster, Matthew T.Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin
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