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Parental fat-free mass is related to the fat-free mass of infants and maternal fat mass is related to the fat mass of infant girls
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, NOVUM, Huddinge, Sweden.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
2015 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 5, 491-497 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: Existing studies suggest that weight and body composition of parents influence the size and body composition of their offspring, but are often inconclusive and conducted by means of inappropriate body composition methodology. Our aim was to study infant size and body composition variables in relation to body composition variables of their mothers and fathers in a well-nourished population using an accurate methodology.

Methods: Between 2008 and 2011, we used air displacement plethysmography to measure the body composition of 209 parent–infant units. Parents were measured when women were in gestational week 32. Their healthy, singleton, full-term infants were measured at 1 week.

Results: Infant fat-free mass in grams was positively related (p ≤ 0.007) to the fat-free mass in kilograms of the mothers (15.6 g/kg) and the fathers (9.1 g/kg). Furthermore, the fat mass of the daughters, but not of the sons, was positively related to the fat mass of the mothers (5.8 g/kg, p = 0.007).

Conclusion: This study found associations between the fat-free mass of parents and infants and an association between the fat mass of mothers and their infant girls. These findings may help to understand early life factors behind overweight and obesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2015. Vol. 104, no 5, 491-497 p.
Keyword [en]
Body composition, Father, Infant, Mother, Sex difference
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Clinical Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117430DOI: 10.1111/apa.12939ISI: 000353643400023PubMedID: 25645821OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-117430DiVA: diva2:808087
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body composition of parents and their infants: methodological, anthropometric, metabolic and genetic studies
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Body composition in infancy may be of importance for later health. In particular, infant body composition may be relevant regarding obesity risk in childhood. Recent advances in body composition methodology using air displacement plethysmography (ADP) have provided possibilities to accurately measure body composition of infants in a quick and non-invasive manner. The aims of this thesis were to study associations of parental body composition using ADP, glucose homeostasis during pregnancy and infant genetics with infant body composition also using ADP. When using ADP in adults, a correction for the thoracic gas volume (TGV) is needed and TGV can be predicted using equations developed in nonpregnant adults. Thus another aim was to study the validity of using such equations during pregnancy.

Parent couples were invited to this study at a routine visit to a maternity clinic in Linköping between September 2008 and October 2010. When the mother was in gestational week 32, parental body composition using ADP and maternal glucose homeostasis variables were assessed. Size and body composition of healthy, singleton and full term (≥ 37 gestational weeks) infants were measured at 1 and 12 weeks of age and a total of 211 infants  were included in the studies. Weight and length at 1 year of age were reported by parents. Saliva samples were collected from the infants to obtain DNA for genotyping of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene.

Body composition results calculated using measured and predicted TGV were compared in 27 women. Results showed that predicted TGV yields a very marginal overestimation (0.5 %) of fat mass (FM). Further, each kg increase in maternal and paternal fat-free mass (FFM) was associated with 15.6 g (P=0.001) and 9.1 g (P=0.007), respectively, more FFM in their 1-week old infants. FM of fathers was not related to infant FM. However, maternal FM was positively associated with FM of daughters (5.8 g/kg, P=0.007), but not of sons (P=0.79) at 1 week of age. Similarly, each standard deviation increase in maternal HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance) was related to 52.7 more g of FM (P<0.001) in 1-weekold daughters, but no such relationship was found for sons (P=0.79). The number of risk alleles at the FTO locus rs9939609 was not associated with infant body mass index (BMI) or infant FM at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the number of risk alleles was positively associated (P≤0.033) with infant length at 1 and 12 weeks of age, and the results suggested that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

The results presented in this thesis show that: i) The use of predicted TGV when applying ADP in gestational week 32 overestimated % FM only slightly. ii) Associations between parental and infant body composition are present early in life. Thus, parental FFM was positively related to FFM in 1-week-old infants. Furthermore, maternal FM and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were positively related to FM of 1-week-old daughters, but no such relationships were observed for sons. iii) The FTO genotype is not associated with infant body fatness at 1 or 12 weeks of age. However, the results suggested that the number of FTO risk alleles is positively associated with infant length, especially in boys.

In conclusion, parental and genetic factors were associated with infant size and body composition and these relationships may be of importance for future body composition and health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. 67 p.
Series
Linköping University Medical Dissertations, ISSN 0345-0082 ; 1456
National Category
Clinical Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117435 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-117435 (DOI)978-91-7519-094-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-02, Berzeliussalen, Campus US, Linköping, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 15402Swedish Research Council Formas, 222-2006-614, 222-2008-1332Magnus Bergvall FoundationSwedish Society of MedicineÖstergötland County Council
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-04-27Bibliographically approved

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