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Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 24114- p.Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA) and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention.

Methods: The NORDIET trial was a six-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists.

Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the fat intake from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND, decreasing the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the diet, slightly decreasing the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and moderately increasing the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Concomitantly, the levels of CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0, but not 16:0, decreased during the ND, and these changes differed from those observed in the control diet group (p<0.01). In contrast, serum 22:6n-3 increased during the ND compared with the control diet (p<0.01). The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0 during the intervention correlated positively with those in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (p<0.01), whereas the changes in CE-PUFA 22:6n-3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids.

Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy Nordic diet are partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 58, 24114- p.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211868DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v58.24114ISI: 000345968000001PubMedID: 25476792OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-211868DiVA: diva2:669053
Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2015-01-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A healthy diet is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors, modifiable by diet, are involved in the development of CVD, e.g. hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertension. Little data however exist on diets composed of foods originating from the Nordic countries, and their potential to reduce CVD risk.

This thesis aimed to investigate whether an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet (ND), either provided as a whole diet, or as a prudent breakfast (PB) alone, could influence CVD risk factors in healthy, mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Another aim was to describe the nutrient and food composition of the ND, both by using self-reported data and serum biomarkers of dietary fat quality.

The primary clinical outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and other cardiometabolic risk factors were secondary outcomes.

Two parallel, randomised, controlled intervention studies were conducted in free-living subjects. Clinical and dietary assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of dietary interventions. All foods were provided to subjects randomised to ND, whereas only breakfast items were supplied to subjects randomised to PB. Control groups followed their habitual diet/breakfast.

Compared with controls, ND reduced body weight and improved several CVD risk factors including LDL-cholesterol, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Several, but not all effects were probably partly mediated by diet-induced weight loss. ND accorded with Nordic nutrition recommendations and was defined as “a plant-based diet, where animal products are used sparingly as side dishes”. Compared with average Swedish diet, ND was high in dietary fibre, but low in sodium, meat, high-fat dairy products, sweets and alcohol. A decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA during ND was partly reflected in serum lipids. Eating a PB without other dietary changes did not improve lipid or glucose metabolism, but decreased markers of visceral fat and inflammation, without influencing body weight.

This thesis suggests that a whole ND, but not PB alone, promotes weight loss and improves multiple CVD risk factors in healthy subjects after 6 weeks. These results suggest that ND could have a potential role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. x+85 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 956
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211874 (URN)978-91-554-8820-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-01-24, Auditorium Minus, Museum Gustavianum, Akademigatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-12-20 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2014-01-24

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