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Pheromone production in the butterfly Pieris napi L
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aphrodisiac and anti-aphrodisiac pheromone production and composition in the green-veined white butterfly Pieris napi L. were investigated.

Aphrodisiac pheromone biosynthesis had different time constraints in butterflies from the diapausing and directly developing generations.

Effects of stable isotope incorporation in adult butterfly pheromone, in the nectar and flower volatiles of  host plants from labeled substrates were measured by solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry.

A method to fertilize plants with stable isotopes was developed and found to be an effective method to investigate the transfer of pheromone building blocks from flowering plants to butterflies. The anti-aphrodisiac methyl salicylate was not biosynthesized from phenylalanine in flowers of Alliaria petiolata.

Both aphrodisiac and anti-aphrodisiac pheromones in P.napi are produced not only from resources acquired in the larval stage, but also from nutritional resources consumed intheadult stage. Males of P. napi produce the anti-aphrodisiac pheromone from both the essential amino acid L-phenylalanine and from common flower fragrance constituents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2014. , 40 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2014:8
Keyword [en]
Pieris, Lepidoptera, pheromone, aphrodisiaca, antiaphrodisiaca, biosynthesis, flower volatiles, stable isotopes, incorporation, neral, geranial, methyl salicylate, benzyl cyanide, L - phenylalanine
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142551ISBN: 978-91-7595-036-9 OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-142551DiVA: diva2:703320
Public defence
2014-03-26, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20140311

Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-06 Last updated: 2014-03-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Seasonal polyphenism in life history traits: time costs of direct development in a butterfly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal polyphenism in life history traits: time costs of direct development in a butterfly
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2010 (English)In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, no 9, 1377-1383 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Insects with two or more generations per year will generally experience different selection regimes depending on the season, and accordingly show seasonal polyphenisms. In butterflies, seasonal polyphenism has been shown with respect to morphology, life history characteristics and behaviour. In temperate bivoltine species, the directly developing generation is more time-constrained than the diapause generation, and this may affect various life history traits such as mating propensity (time from eclosion to mating). Here, we test whether mating propensity differs between generations in Pieris napi, along with several physiological parameters, i.e. male sex pheromone synthesis, and female ovigeny index and fecundity. As predicted, individuals of the directly developing generation-who have shorter time for pupal development-are more immature at eclosion; males take longer to synthesise the male sex pheromone after eclosion and take longer to mate than diapause generation males. Females show the same physiological pattern; the directly developing females lay fewer eggs than diapausing females during the first days of their life. Nevertheless, the directly developing females mate faster after eclosion than diapausing females, indicating substantial adult time stress in this generation and possibly an adaptive value of shortening the pre-reproductive period. Our study highlights how time stress can be predictably different between generations, affecting both life history and behaviour. By analysing several life history traits simultaneously, we adopt a multi-trait approach to examining how adaptations and developmental constraints likely interplay to shape these seasonal polyphenisms.

Keyword
Behavioural polyphenism, Citral, Green-veined white, Phenotypic plasticity, Time constraints, Voltinism
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-26899 (URN)10.1007/s00265-010-0952-x (DOI)000280842600002 ()2-s2.0-77955592126 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20101130

Available from: 2010-11-30 Created: 2010-11-29 Last updated: 2014-03-11Bibliographically approved
2. Timing of Male Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis in a Butterfly - Different Dynamics under Direct or Diapause Development
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Timing of Male Sex Pheromone Biosynthesis in a Butterfly - Different Dynamics under Direct or Diapause Development
2012 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 38, no 5, 584-591 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The life history traits and behavior of the butterfly are well-known, as the species is often used as a model organism for evolutionary and ecological studies. The species has two or more generations per year in the major part of its temperate distribution, and as different selection pressures affect the different generations, both behavioral and physiological seasonal polyphenisms have been shown previously. Here, we explored the dynamics of male sex pheromone production. The two generations are shown to have significantly different scent compositions early in life; the direct developers-who have shorter time for pupal development-need the first 24 hr of adult life after eclosion to synthesize the sex pheromone citral (geranial and neral 1:1)-whereas the diapausing individuals who have spent several months in the pupal stage eclose with adult scent composition. Resource allocation and biosynthesis also were studied in greater detail by feeding butterflies C-13 labeled glucose either in the larval or adult stage, and recording incorporation into geranial, neral, and other volatiles produced. Results demonstrate that the pheromone synthesized by newly eclosed adult males is based on materials ingested in the larval stage, and that adult butterflies are able to synthesize the pheromone components geranial and neral and the related alcohols also from adult intake of glucose. In summary, our study shows that time-stress changes the timing in biosynthesis of the complete pheromone between generations, and underpins the importance of understanding resource allocation and the physiological basis of life history traits.

Keyword
Aphrodisiac, Citral, Green-veined white butterfly, Polyphenism, Sex pheromone
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-98019 (URN)10.1007/s10886-012-0126-6 (DOI)000304208300016 ()2-s2.0-84861341426 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, MTT2
Note

QC 20120619

Available from: 2012-06-19 Created: 2012-06-18 Last updated: 2014-03-11Bibliographically approved
3. Amino acid fertilized flowering plants for studying the transfer of pheromone precursors to butterflies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amino acid fertilized flowering plants for studying the transfer of pheromone precursors to butterflies
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142657 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2014-03-11Bibliographically approved
4. Anti-aphrodisiac pheromone production in adult butterfiles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anti-aphrodisiac pheromone production in adult butterfiles
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-142658 (URN)
Note

QS 2014

Available from: 2014-03-11 Created: 2014-03-11 Last updated: 2014-03-11Bibliographically approved

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